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Your own petard, sir. That reinforces my models as well You haven't got any models! You are an unqualified loon, posting in a comments section! Where are these 'models'? Like I said, you are not an EUist, you are an independent loon, who disavows all their beliefs and dogma. And that is the very PDF I read out and presented fact to you from, and now you dispute it? And there is nothing in that pdf that disagrees with what I am saying.

Show me. Quote it, and give the section number. Gripe away JD, I pointed out the section 6. For example the initial mass function is unclear. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic fields has often been neglected. And of what frigging relevance is that to the crap you were talking about?

That has nothing to do with the Biermann Battery effect! So, WTF are you talking about now? I don't think you have any idea about this subject, do you? You are not qualified in it, and don't understand it. Just another crank on a comments section. Haven't you embarrassed yourself enough here? I rest my case JD. You don't have a case. You are not a scientist, just a fantasist on a comments section, spouting vague, science-free bollocks. Word salad, dear boy. Nobody is taking a blind bit of notice.

Irony, coming from the lying prick who claims to have studied nuclear engineering for 6 years, and understands jack sh! What is a half-life, you thick cretin? How embarrassing. Want me to quote your definition again, you lying poser? Get back to mopping the floors, you dumb oaf. Like the Republicans presently saying they are the heroes saving Medicare and Medicaid Yeah, right, like the rest of the ACA he has led over 60 votes to gut.

And counting. Sorry JD, your pivot dont work. You posted the paper, I referenced the relevant data out of it, now ye can sit there and just deal with it because it is beyond proof now. Dont expect reply, ignore is ON. Stick to cleaning floors, yes janitor boy? Uneducated piece of sh!

Atmospheric electricity - definition of atmospheric electricity by The Free Dictionary

We were specifically talking about the Biermann Battery, you thick swine. She gave a nice review of it that wasn't overly technical. The piece you quoted has absolutely nothing to do with that, and nothing whatsoever to do with any EU idiocy. They don't believe in star formation as she describes it you bloody clown. They think it is powered by some electric woo. It is their no. Christ you are thick. Read the entire paper JD, and give me a book report on it in the morning or you can just figure that you are the fraud the majority of us know you to be. If ONE Part of the paper is pertinent, the Rest of the paper is pertinent to the facts contained in it.

If the rest of the paper is garbage, than the section you pointed to obviously a google-to is garbage as well. As I went and read the entire paper, I found her conclusions refreshing, her method reasonably rigorous, and she admits to working on a small subset of energy factors that may have played a part in the deep past, but is quick to point out, and clear, that these very processes, including the MHD and Biermann effects of current and magnetic moment 'seeds' are still very much present and active in the present day universe, and her own words state that she feels that the magnetic fields often been neglected in people's models.

So it is no wonder some are surprised at the fields strengths being found NOW. And there is absolutely nothing in that PhD thesis that agrees with any EU woo, you idiot. You simply have comprehension problems, don't you? Did you even do high school science? That thesis is totally mainstream, and you cannot point to any part of it that isn't. And where did you predict these field strengths, poser? What are those field strengths? What do you think they are doing, you ignorant fool? No word salad, show us the maths. You have nothing, do you? So, let's see what Ms.

Schober has to say about magnetic fiels in primordial star formation; It is all in section 9. This requires the field to be frozen-in to the gas. That goes against EU dogma. No frozen-in allowed. And of course, she is describing a star that forms from gas and dust, and is powered by nuclear fusion. There goes another EU belief. No electric star forming currents mentioned. Oh, and she's quoting MHD simulations to back up her conclusions. EU don't like MHD. Alfven denounced it.

He didn't, but that is their belief. And she has planets forming in the accretion disk. EU don't believe that. They fly out of the Sun, or some such woo. So, yes, I rather like Ms. Schober's take on things - all very mainstream and very anti-EU woo. Good for her. So, perhaps we can now ask the following questions; When did EU wooistry morph into mainstream astrophysics? If it didn't, then when did Steelwolf become a supporter of mainstream astrophysics, and kick the EU wooistry into touch?

After all, he admits to believing very little of their nonsense. Here I was thinking EUists were terminal nutters, and it seems they may believe nothing that isn't pure mainstream. I think Mr. Steel will be very soon disowned by the EU wooists, if they haven't already! That stuff makes even their level of woo pale into insignificance! If you are going to try to use that to dog me, your own Karma is going to find itself deeply squished Stump, I would recommend against it.

Just a kind word of advice Stump. Soon enough you will find out a Great Number of Truths. I have died and chose to come back, at 6 yrs old, as I KNOW reincarnation, god, angels and the afterlife all exist. Telepathy is a matter of sending information packets from the electrical processes and crystals grown in the normal human head, to another human, or animal, with similar frequencies or harmonics. The Military uses 'Clairvoyants', or people who can see things without being physically present.

There is a lot of classified tech that will be coming out within the next 5 years or so that will radically change our world, give us unlimited energy and an extremely upgraded lifestyle for everybody. We would have been much farther towards this long ago had they not cut off Tesla in their quest for riches and power. Dont believe me, fine. I am sure that you will get the treatment you deeply need Stump, and the rest of the deeply ignorant state people. I WILL feel sorry for you until then.

Actually, Stump, one of the abiding points of this whole thing was to tell the story, far and wide, and let people believe or not as they will, but I cannot, and will not, go charging for giving such basic human information that should be taught to all, freely. You can play your stupid games of belittling people to try to build yourself up, but remember, it only makes you look lower and lower as you heap insult on those undeserving of it, and all the world takes notice, and the energy They send You will be as That YOU send out in the first place.

As you sow, so shall you reap, and if all you sow is bitter weeds, plants of thorns and harmful shoots, then your harvest, come the winter of the soul, will be bitter indeed. I pity you. Oct 20, I have a few new solar panels I should put up this weekend, then! As you sow, so shall you reap yeah, I know kinda hard to grow corn if you sow peas I pity you don't apparently, I am far, far happier than you, and I have an incredible life that I've lived and continue to live I will whisper your pain to the Wakinyan and FSM so that you may receive their blessings.

Da Schneib. The EUdiots can't figure out Biermann's Battery. The Wikipedia article is all math and they don't do math. That's one of the EUdiot Commandments: no math. A one and no reply. This isn't science, it's politics. Go away. The Birkeland current is what carries the energy created by the emf of the plasma traversing magnetic fields.

Pot, kettle, black? Weird how this is exactly what you do. You even take quotes from Einstein and reinterpret them to fake-substantiate some irrational claim of yours, illustrating your misunderstanding of the very quote you used. It almost seems you have, since it appears you have started using two sock puppets to vote up your comments. You must be getting desperate. The Birkeland current is what carries the energy created by the emf of the plasma traversing magnetic fields Nope, you just made that up.

A permanent magnet has nothing attached to it, no power, no circuit. You can't assume there is an electric current driving a magnetic field based on this simple object. The current would be internal and atomic,not something macroscopically seen and subject to Ohms law. Nope, you just made that up. A permanent magnet And that has relevance because? The discussion is of plasma, not reefer magnets.

Regardless, the spin and orbit of the electrons is analogous to the circuit and electric current on the atomic scale. Alfven never proposed intergalactic Birkeland currents. That is pure woo. So how would you propose the Birkeland currents flow in the artist's rendering of the torus at the top of the page? Somehow the current must flow along the outer surface of the toroid completing a circuit path back to the source without breaking.

Yes he did, section 1. The simulation in the paper essentially shows a segment of two parallel interacting Birkeland currents. Knowledge expansion? No one here wants to spend an hour reading through a lengthy treatise just to find a single paragraph that makes your point. Many of us have busier things to do like fixing our own solenoids as I just did on my garden tractor as I sit here with cruddy greasy fingers trying to figure how this one in outer space is supposed to work.

Seems for Birkeland currents one requires a magnetosphere. The pictures in the Wikipedia article make it pretty clear. Somebody's got a jargon generator. Just sayin'. He made his choices long ago and will shortly have to pay the piper, so to speak. We know where he is and what he does and says, at all times. The old Chickenshit is free to do as he pleases - for now.

But the time is coming soon for full retribution. Bierman batteries require a rotating plasma. Maybe you forgot. Never a mention of voltage. Voltage a required entity in any valid analysis of electrical events in sheaths of highly conductive but still resistive plasma. Cantdrive's magical current with no mention of a voltage. Voltages that would have to be billions of trillions of volts to power Suns.

On further reading Ohm's law is not simply valid in a plasma, only one of five components in "Generalized Ohm's Law". Okay I'm outta here. Space is not a circuit I'm familiar with. That is not Scott or Perrat's gigaparsec currents lunacy. Learn comprehension. And that paper is long since outdated and ignored. And he was wrong about double radio galaxies, and his matter anti-matter universe nonsense. And trying to explain the 3 K background radiation by currents was also a fail. Just out of curiosity, had we discovered cosmic voids or galaxy superclusters in ? I know cosmic voids had not been discovered; I think superclusters were still being theorized but the evidence was equivocal then.

Jonesy is right; Alfven didn't even know about them. His vision is "intergalactic;" this implies currents at the inter-galaxy level, not anything higher.

And his evidence for them is also equivocal. DS, The back history to some of the above is that one Anthony Peratt, a former student of Alfven, iirc, did some lab plasma experiments. To cut a long story short, what showed up looked superficially like a spiral galaxy. It should have been left there, but Peratt published a scarcely seen nor cited paper in an irrelevant journal IEEE. He posited Gpc long currents powering galaxies, which explained rotation curves. He never figured out how these currents were moving stars around, and predicted sychrotron radiation from the currents. Subsequent all-sky maps that would have seen this radiation didn't, and he essentially dumped it 2 decades ago, in favour of hunting for petroglyphs showing ancient plasma woo.

He failed miserably, by stuffing up the maths, among other things. It is all pure woo. Maybe someday we'll figure out how circuits in the sky really work with toroidal doughnuts, just not now until we have better instrumentation that can measure magnetic fields far beyond our solar system. A Birkeland current is a set of currents that flow along geomagnetic field lines connecting the Earth's magnetosphere to the Earth's high latitude ionosphere.

In the Earth's magnetosphere, the currents are driven by the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field and by bulk motions of plasma through the magnetosphere convection indirectly driven by the interplanetary environment. The strength of the Birkeland currents changes with activity in the magnetosphere e. In the s Anders Celsius and assistant Olof Hjorter knew of these currants of the plasma The currents were predicted in by Norwegian explorer and physicist Kristian Birkeland, who undertook expeditions north of the Arctic Circle to study the aurora.

He rediscovered, using simple magnetic field measurement instruments, that when the aurora appeared the needles of magnetometers changed direction, confirming the findings of Anders Celsius and assistant Olof Hjorter more than a century before. Olof Hjorter Hjorter began his studies at Uppsala university in , and was an astronomy student of professor Per Elvius.

In Hjorter was employed by Count Axel Oxenstierna, a keen amateur astronomer, and was encouraged and supported by him to continue at Uppsala university. Jonesy, thanks, man. DS, He [Anthony Peratt, a former student of Alfven, iirc] never figured out how these currents were moving stars around, and predicted sychrotron radiation from the currents. Subsequent all-sky maps that would have seen this radiation didn't,.. Now a study link below says: The research found that radio and X-ray brightness of the large-scale radio structure is decreasing moving out of the core, and the X-ray spectrum of the jet is compatible with synchrotron emissions.

These were all-sky maps. If they were there, they'd be seen. Ask a scientist. Take the nearest galaxies; what would you expect to come leaping out of the data at you? Guess what they didn't see? And what biases? None of these people would have heard of a non-event paper in an irrelevant journal. They see what they see. I'm still having problems with my customized system which I have been modifying further and cannot make secure connections with all too many sites at present.

Would you kindly post here excerpt s from your link that you feel answers my above questions, mate?

Discovering a previously unknown role for a source of magnetic fields

Lost in Birkland currants. Lost in Birkland currants I'll leave it at that for the time being; at least until I next go into town; and can use the library's computers to access that site. Thanks anyway for your trouble, mate! Much appreciated. Good luck. Lost in Birkland currants And RealityCheck, what is this persistent BT optic fibre Infinity you're having this persistent infinity problem with, not only are numbers still in the dark ages, they appear to inhabit some technology dark ages as well.

Only currants, juicy and tasty in crumbly cakey mixture with lashings of thick creamy English butter of the Shires RC. My wife makes blueberry crumble cakes, we slather them with creamed whipped butter as soon as they come out of the oven. Birkeland currents are any field aligned current, no magnetosphere required but they do occur in magnetospheres. As a matter of fact the Birkeland current flowing through a body such as Earth likely created said magnetic field. The Earth is an electromagnet, the Birkeland current powers it.

And Bridgeman is a hack, not worth bothering with. You're gonna get more out of a Garfield cartoon than anything Bridgeman has uttered. No he didn't. It is a prediction of the model. It has been shown numerous times Verschuur's explanation of the problems with your assumptions, as usual you continue to ignore and obfuscate.

Peratt published a scarcely seen nor cited paper in an irrelevant journal IEEE. It was published in an "irrelevant" journal because the plasma physicists associated with that journal understand plasma physics, unlike the plasma ignoramus journals. And additional evidence of the currents are found all the time, see recent discovery of cosmic hydrogen which pervades the Universe. Already explained how that H is evidence of synchrotron radiation. Take this paper here, you can't get past the first sentence of the introduction without reading about voltage.

Your willful ignorance is on par with jonesdumb. And you clearly don't understand the volume of space, the voltage requirement of the Sun is approx. Voltage requirement? Cantdrive: Circuit analysis of a plasma is way more complex then you could ever handle. Ohm's law is still a factor, just not the only factor in a conductive plasma.

And you think there can be a circuit in our solar system, still proves you don't know chit about EE, that hasn't changed. If it's an insulator then it's not a plasma. Oct 21, I think it's too long for physorg's parser. CnP is the way to go. And watch out: the parser also injects a link to this article at the end.

Most of your objections are misinterpretation and ignorant assumptions.

Reading a paper on Plasma Cosmology will not make plasma become an insulator. Since your discussion has turned to the issue of how a 'voltage' can arise, I am reminded of a study which jonesdave quoted from a couple months ago? Good luck with your discussion. The Moon in Double layer plasma physics A double layer is a structure in plasma consisting of two parallel layers of opposite electrical charge. The sheets of charge, which are not necessarily planar, produce localised excursions of electric potential, resulting in a relatively strong electric field between the layers and weaker but more extensive compensating fields outside The Moon, prediction of a lunar double layer was confirmed in In the shadows, the Moon charges negatively in the interplanetary medium.

The Moon in Double layer So what is this intriguing lunar double layer in the shadows? Is it the lunar regolith charging oppositely between sunlit and shadow or is it regolith in oppositely charged to the passing solar wind, because, if so, what is this regolith in the shadows relevance?

Lunar Currents in the Shadows Currents in the shadows In lunar double layer Static regolith in charge Is either sunlit, shadow of solar ion So being ion is in plasma Is lunar layer in the shadows. Total crap. How the hell is H a signature of synchrotron emission? You cannot be that thick! Actually, yes, you could be.

As proven. And why hasn't Peratt written this? Why did he give up on his woo 20 years ago, coincidentally as the all-sky maps that proved him wrong were being published? How is any of his or Scott's error ridden crap explaining stellar galactic orbits? It is rubbish, and rightly ignored.

Only dicks like you still think it is valid. Based purely on faith. Nope, Bridgman is another real scientist who has shown EU crap up for what it is. You don't have any real scientists, do you woo boy? Which is why you have to attack the person, rather than the message. You are thick, and nobody at EU is anywhere near the level of the likes of Bridgman. Lunacy in the Shadows Of all the verbiage in response to Birkeland currents in double layer We have, in lunacy of cycle, a variation to descriptive As lunar lunacy of double layers in the shadows.

As though it never Happened And JD, the problem though separate, is by virtue of peerage of quality instigation, that's resulted in of August 14, to this present day, when in only hours previous was a goodly change though tenuous in its application, there is out of this period maelstrom, a change has taken place, depending on its evolution, we can, after all our frustration, sit back and watch it happen as though all that peerage of quality instigation never happened! And as if to prove the point JD, upon August 14, , is evoloution taking place as we speak! Still way too low for any normal circuit analysis.

AC would be easily detected, DC power would required 30, volts per cm to get an electric arc to travel. But this would fry Earth. A intermediate current that wouldn't arc and still provide power would require a solid or a liquid to conduct the electricity. Our inner solar system is not filled with conductive plasma. If it was, no space communications would be possible, being shorted out by plasma.

1st Edition

If there was any evidence of energy going into the Sun powering it, I'd be all for it. But there's none. That voltage is in a vacuum close enough , no material required. For one case with adequate high time resolution data, double layers were observed in an interval of 1 min to produce a , V net parallel potential drop crossing the spacecraft. Lower resolution data show that this event lasted for 6 min and that more than 1,, volts of net parallel potential crossed the spacecraft during this time. Regarding those double layers, they must be described as part of a circuit; "As the rate of energy release in a double layer with voltage DeltaV is P corresponding to IDeltaV, a double layer must be treated part of a circuit which delivers the current I.

As neither double layer nor circuit can be derived from magnetofluid models of a plasma, such models are useless for treating energy transfer by means of double layers. They must be replaced by particle models and circuit theory. A simple circuit is suggested which is applied to the energizing of auroroal particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from earth.

DL's measured, and they are a circuit feature. The DL is a plasma sheath which "insulates" one plasma region from another. Ignorance can blind if you are unwilling to open ones eyes.

Works under MDS 538.72

But the basic rules still hold; there are just some extra rules to add. One of Alfven's realizations was that when you are working with plasma, you not only have to deal with classical Ohm's Law, you also have to deal with the flow of the plasma. And that's very much more complicated because that flow is also a current, but not in the same sense as an electrical current. The copper in wires, after all, doesn't move around.

And this introduces more than just the obvious changing E and B fields relative to the destination; it also introduces, for example, cyclotron effects. All of these give the general Ohm's Law, which is therefore considerably different from the classical static Ohm's Law we all learned as EEs. Van Allen probes electric fields parallel to the local magnetic field line observed on the Van Allen probes with in situ relativistic electron acceleration in the Earth's outer radiation belt.

Lower resolution show for 6 min and that more than 1,, volts of net parallel potential crossed the spacecraft during this time. Now this sounds interesting CD. The outer belt is made up of billions of high-energy particles that originate from the Sun and become trapped in Earth's magnetic field, an area known as the magnetosphere. The inner belt results from interactions of cosmic rays with Earth's atmosphere.

Oh, and to bring this back to the subject of this thread, Biermann's battery is one of those other field rules from the generalized Ohm's Law that has to be included. The EUdiots generally ignore it because they can't do the scary integral calculus, never mind the scary vectors. Anyone who thinks Maxwell's equations are simple or deal only with electron flow hasn't absorbed their meaning.

These are EE concepts which are being suggested as relevant to astrophysical phenomena, it is the plasma ignoramuses that resist this suggestion. Contrary to da schnied's obfuscation. Maxwell's equations are not EE concepts, cantthink They're physics and all of the laws of plasma physics must obey them. You're lying again, cantthink This approach was to a high degree experimental and phenomenological, and only very slowly reached some degree of theoretical sophistication.

Most theoretical physicists looked down on this field, which was complicated and awkward. The plasma exhibited striations and double-layers, the electron distribution was non-Maxwellian, there were all sorts of oscillations and instabilities. In short, it was a field which was not at all suited for mathematically elegant theories. I thought you didn't believe in math models or extrapolations thereof?

In other words, it quotes Alfven but doesn't understand what he was saying. The problem EUists have with DLs, is they tend to want to see them everywhere. Alfven had a bit of a thing for them, and suggested that 'exploding' DLs were producing the signatures which were being tentatively assigned to magnetic reconnection in his day. Further work in the lab, and a shed load of in-situ evidence shows it is indeed, MR.

I read a paper a few years ago that suggested the importance of DLs in astrophysics was somewhat overplayed, and that, although they happen in the magnetosphere, it is unlikely that they would be stable enough for long enough to be of huge importance overall. From memory, F.

Mozer was one of the first to describe their detection in the magnetosphere. They are really nothing much to do with reconnection. The 'go to' guy on DLs is Michael Raadu, for anybody interested.

Webpage for SBGEA

And everywhere in situ measurements have had the resolution to measure them, they have been present. The fact is the plasma ignoramuses insist that plasma is different from laboratory and in situ measured plasmas. It's a hypothetical plasma based on "elegant maths theories" and theoreticians who have never seen a laboratory plasma.

No, that is just a baseless assertion. They have been measured in the magnetosphere, and nowhere else except in the lab. And they are not associated with reconnection. The problem is that lab plasmas are essentially ideal. They are created and controlled by input from humans. Astrophysical plasmas are not like that.

There are shocks and turbulence, etc. They are not being ignored, but neither are they proposed in situations where it is shown that they do not, and cannot be expected, to occur. Oh sod off with this ancient, idiotic dogma! Who gives a toss what Alfven said in the middle of the last century? He has been long since surpassed by better experiment, better theory and better in-situ measurement. What he got right has been kept, and he is recognised for it. That is all. He is not God. Neither was Einstein.

Kept his good stuff, dumped the rest. Hell, even Alfven's closest collaborator, Falthammar, saw the way the evidence was going, and dumped a lot of his dogma re MR and exploding DLs. And now he is a generation or two out of date himself. Times change. Only an idiot would keep clinging to an idea about exploding DLs, when all the evidence says it is MR.

That is just idiotic. And has more to do with doctrine than science. Which is bollocks, of course. Alfven died 23 years ago. His last meaningful contribution to PP was some decades before that. He gave up on it. One of the nutjobs who wants to try to screw up maths, and deny MR and promote all sorts of other nonsense in tribute to Alfven, is Don Scott.

Who is not, nor ever has been, a PP. And he didn't do it on a computer! You have built a strawman based on your ignorance of modern PP, and try to burn it down. The reason you are ignorant of modern PP, is that none of your cult have studied it. Have they? So, why should we listen to these clowns? Oct 22, No wonder god is always part of your rants, Oh My. You better stop while ahead Jonsie, ye might follow yer hero there. You're really one sick puppy, aren't you? Bridgeman was a hack Marxist and a suicide, WTF are you on about, loony tunes? Go take your medication. Schneibo, you're the one who has yet to grow up, talk about puppies Yeah, infinite density at the exact point of zero gravity puppy boy, so how does that work?

I said; The fact is the plasma ignoramuses insist that plasma is different from laboratory and in situ measured plasmas. Which was acknowledged by jonesdumb; Astrophysical plasmas are not like that. I guess, by jonesdumb's own admission, the magnetosphere is not an astrophysical plasma because it actually has double layers.

BTW jonesdumb, "shocks" are in fact double layers however the plasma ignoramuses avoid the electrical properties of plasmas in their fluid modeling. Sorry, who is dumb? I'm not the one that believes Earth used to orbit Saturn, or that Venus came hurtling out of Jupiter, et laughable cetera! And just link to the ACE paper, yes? And shocks are not DLs. There is any number of mechanisms to form shocks and turbulence in plasmas. Your problem is that your cult contains nobody with a clue about plasma physics, let alone DLs in particular.

It is all rote learned from ancient Alfven texts. It is the very definition of a cult or quasi-religion. Whatever it is, it isn't science. Blah, blah, blah Followed by jonesdumb; I'm not the one that believes Earth used to orbit Saturn, or that Venus came hurtling out of Jupiter Proselytize indeed. Followed by jonesdumb; I'm not the one that believes Earth used to orbit Saturn, or that Venus came hurtling out of Jupiter Proselytize indeed. A double layer is a double layer is a double layer although there are several type of double layers.

He would know a hell of a lot more about them than you do. They aren't magic. It's not about belief and given the evidence I do see it as a possibility. That doesn't mean I "believe" it. I am certainly more apt to lean towards PC, although it seems as if the facts lie somewhere between the two. A possibility in which universe? Certainly not according to the laws of physics in this one! The final paragraph of the Wikipedia entry sums it up pretty well; You mean this? The presence of the double layers is indicative of this. You know, the same way you infer a BH must exist.

Certainly not your pseudoscientific universe where only gravity operates on such scales, but in our Universe where plasma and EM effects dominate. From the Sun? And where is this written up? Specifically how EM woo alters the orbits of planets, or affects the orbits of stars? Pure woo, and nothing more than faith based nonsense. So the Sun isn't a source of energy? Ions and electrons are not electric? So how do the observed DL's get the energy required to create them?

Magic as you claim then Which is obviously nonsense. Wow, you are pretty much an idiot. Ignore for you dumdum. I Do actually keep up with really up to date data, and dont rely on some outdated models when others, in the papers even JD posted here for us, a few times, that stated plainly in sec 9. If the Solar and geomagnetic fields were not so important, nor relevant to modern science, then why do they have continuously updated running data streams like this:] What has this to do with EU idiocy? Researchers typically use seismometers to measure ground shaking during earthquakes, but scientists can also use them to create three-dimensional images of the areas underneath volcanoes.

Using 10 months of data recorded by the seismometers, Mazzini and his colleagues imaged the area below Lusi and the surrounding volcanoes. The images showed a tunnel protruding from the northernmost of Arjuno-Welirang's magma chambers into the sedimentary basin where Lusi is located. This allows magma and hydrothermal fluids originating in the mantle to intrude into Lusi's sediments, which triggers massive reactions and creates gas that generates high pressure below Earth's surface.

Any perturbation -- like an earthquake -- can then trigger this system to erupt. Mazzini and other researchers suspect a magnitude 6. Mazzini and other scientists are unsure how much longer Lusi will continue to erupt. While mud volcanoes are fairly common on Java, Lusi is a hybrid between a mud volcano and a hydrothermal vent, and its connection to the nearby volcano will keep sediments cooking for years to come.

Materials provided by American Geophysical Union. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News. The plumbing system feeding the Lusi eruption revealed by ambient noise tomography. ScienceDaily, 17 October American Geophysical Union. Scientists determine source of world's largest mud eruption. Retrieved September 23, from www. Only slowly, rich life develops around the crater. The first In , the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano in the Aleutian archipelago provided a rare opportunity to track how the island's Studies of rocks found on certain volcanic islands, known as ocean island basalts, have revealed Below are relevant articles that may interest you.

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