The most representative works of art in each period are presented; primary texts about art and aesthetics, with particular regard to the historiographical methodology for art history, are also discussed. For music, a general introduction into music theory is provided, including the question of the value of music in its aesthetical and ethical dimension, with a special emphasis on the authors of antiquity.
The historical account is initiated with musical documents from Antiquity and carried forward until the dawn of polyphony. Taught by Mrs. Louise Joyner and Fr. Prerequisite: H This course builds on the ones from last year and, with the same class methodology and dynamics, carries the historical survey and reflection forward from Mannerism, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-Classicism to Romanticism. Particular attention will be paid to the growing importance during this period of art criticism, the impact of museology and art historical-methodologies. Monthly museum visits will intensify the personal exposure to artworks of various collections available in New England.
Music history focuses on the periods of Classics Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven and the Romantic age in its international ramifications. The exposition of composers and their works is backed up by insights into the cultural and especially ideological circumstances of the time.
H Exploring the Humanities 3 credits. Prerequisites: none. Timothy Kearns, and Mr. No prerequisites. In this course, students read, analyze and discuss selected works from ancient authors. A discussion of major themes and topics—such as literary devices, ideas and intuitions regarding human nature—follows each presentation. Taught by Mr. Robert Murphy, and Dr. Timothy Kearns. The course also includes a seminar to gain an appreciation for the particular power of poetry and to understand a variety of its formal elements.
In order to be able to dialogue in a meaningful and effective way with people of our time, students will study relevant texts and articles in order to analyze, understand, discuss, and evaluate not only the main manifestations of contemporary cultural trends but also their origins. H Athetics Ancient and Modern 2 credits.
This course will study athletics ancient and modern, drawing from literary, archaeological, art historical, and video evidence. The first part of the course will deal with antiquity: topics will include athletics in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Bronze age Greece; the ancient Olympics and other pan-Hellenic athletic festivals; the pan-Hellenic sanctuaries of Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, and Isthmia; and Roman games and venues and their place in Roman society and political culture.
The second part will consider the 19 th and 20 th centuries: the foundation of the modern Olympic games as an example of Romantic Hellenism, baseball as a chapter in the social history of the United States, the World Cup soccer championship as an arena for international politics. Taught by Dr. Charles Mercier. H The Art of Icons 3 credits. Prerequisite: H Yet what does the practice of writing that is, painting a sacred image have to offer to the faithful?
This course will combine the prayerful practice of creating an icon with an in-depth study of the theology of icons. The end result of this course will be the creation of a holy image, using the traditional materials and techniques for iconography - wood, linen, gesso, gold leaf, and egg tempera paint — while at the same time gaining a deeper appreciation for the spiritual art of iconography.
Class periods will be primarily used for painting but there will also be an opportunity for discussion and reflection, in a seminar format, based upon the readings. Louise Joyner. Prerequisite: mastery of basic Latin morphology and syntax. The course focuses on analyzing and translating a selection of hymns and prayers from the Catholic Mass and other ceremonies, an introduction to the Latin of the Vulgate, the Church Fathers, and the Medieval Latin of the Doctors of the Church.
Students learn the vocabulary words that occur most frequently in the texts they are translating. Each week, translation of original Latin texts is combined with a systematic grammar review. Taught by Fr. John Sweeney, LC. L Select Reading of Ecclesiastical Latin 2 credits. Prerequisite: L This course will lead the students through texts from the Church liturgy and ecumenical councils, principally the Liturgy of the Hours and Gaudium et Spes.
This course continues to lead the students through texts from Church documents and other texts. John Sweeney LC. This course will introduce the students into the translation of classical Latin texts in ascending degree of difficulty, with the idea of easing the students into more complex texts. L Selections of the Confessions of St. Augustine 2 credits. The course includes the reading of selected texts from the autobiography of St. Augustine, and the emphasis is on reading comprehension.
Theoretical and aural recognition of established melodic, harmonic and rhythmic traditions within jazz so as to apply successfully to creative performance-practice and composition-arranging pursuits. Not open to music majors. Designed to encourage understanding of music from selected periods. Development of active cognitive listening skills through guided listening to selected recorded music. Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. Designed for the purpose of developing familiarity with the elements of music that are part of a successful performance and listening experience.
Weekly attendance at both VCU and external events is part of the criteria to develop students' awareness of the creative process in shaping a musical performance. Open to music majors. Second year studies continue with chromatic harmony and modulations. Final semester of study continues with chromatic harmony and concludes with modern techniques as applied to form in music.
Elements of popular styles and jazz are incorporated as appropriate. Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 laboratory hour. Application of musical analysis, composition, keyboard and ear training in holistic and integrated assignments and projects. Group assignments will lead to development of self-directed project.
Semester course; variable hours. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Flexible semester courses in selected aspects of music performance, theory, literature or history. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered. Semester courses; 2 lecture hours. Prerequisite: open to music majors; all others must obtain permission of instructor. A survey of stringed keyboard literature. Historical, formal and stylistic considerations of the various periods and composers of keyboard music. Listening and reading assignments included.
Fall semester: Baroque and Classical periods ; spring semester: Romantic, Modern and Contemporary periods present. An analytical study of musical forms and salient features of melody, harmony, rhythm and timbre of late Baroque, Classical, early and late Romantic compositions. Study of traditional and new approaches to form in the music of the 20th century. Examination of post-tonal harmony as a determinant of form, formal aspects of motivicism, contour, rhythm, register, timbre and texture.
Prerequisites: A or level physics course or equivalent and the ability to read music or sing or play a musical instrument, or permission of instructor. Basics of the physics of waves and sound. Fourier synthesis, tone quality, human ear and voice, musical temperament and pitch, physics of musical instruments, electronic synthesizers, sound recording and reproduction, room and auditorium acoustics. Not applicable toward the physics major. A study of the basic harmonic, melodic, notational and orchestrational techniques needed to draft a successful jazz arrangement.
The final project will be to write an arrangement for a piece jazz ensemble. Advanced harmonic, melodic and orchestrational techniques applied to writing for the small jazz ensemble, vocal group and large jazz orchestra. Study of Western music in a historical context from antiquity through the Classical era. Study of Western music in a historical context from the Romantic era to the 21st century.
Study of jazz in a historical context from pre-jazz roots to contemporary styles. Studies in the Music of the African Continent and Diaspora. The basic forces required for an orchestra became somewhat standardized although they would grow as the potential of a wider array of instruments was developed in the following centuries.
Chamber music grew to include ensembles with as many as 8 to 10 performers for serenades. Opera continued to develop, with regional styles in Italy, France, and German-speaking lands. The opera buffa , a form of comic opera, rose in popularity. The symphony came into its own as a musical form, and the concerto was developed as a vehicle for displays of virtuoso playing skill.
Orchestras no longer required a harpsichord which had been part of the traditional continuo in the Baroque style , and were often led by the lead violinist now called the concertmaster.
Classical era musicians continued to use many of instruments from the Baroque era, such as the cello, contrabass, recorder, trombone, timpani, fortepiano the precursor to the modern piano and organ. While some Baroque instruments fell into disuse e. During the Classical era, the stringed instruments used in orchestra and chamber music such as string quartets were standardized as the four instruments which form the string section of the orchestra : the violin, viola, cello, and double bass.
Baroque-era stringed instruments such as fretted, bowed viols were phased out. Woodwinds included the basset clarinet , basset horn , clarinette d'amour , the Classical clarinet , the chalumeau , the flute, oboe and bassoon. Keyboard instruments included the clavichord and the fortepiano. While the harpsichord was still used in basso continuo accompaniment in the s and s, it fell out of use at the end of the century.
Brass instruments included the buccin , the ophicleide a replacement for the bass serpent , which was the precursor of the tuba and the natural horn. Wind instruments became more refined in the Classical era. While double-reed instruments like the oboe and bassoon became somewhat standardized in the Baroque, the clarinet family of single reeds was not widely used until Mozart expanded its role in orchestral, chamber, and concerto settings. The music of the Romantic era, from roughly the first decade of the 19th century to the early 20th century, was characterized by increased attention to an extended melodic line, as well as expressive and emotional elements, paralleling romanticism in other art forms.
Musical forms began to break from the Classical era forms even as those were being codified , with free-form pieces like nocturnes , fantasias , and preludes being written where accepted ideas about the exposition and development of themes were ignored or minimized. In the 19th century, musical institutions emerged from the control of wealthy patrons, as composers and musicians could construct lives independent of the nobility. Increasing interest in music by the growing middle classes throughout western Europe spurred the creation of organizations for the teaching, performance, and preservation of music.
The piano, which achieved its modern construction in this era in part due to industrial advances in metallurgy became widely popular with the middle class, whose demands for the instrument spurred a large number of piano builders. Many symphony orchestras date their founding to this era. European cultural ideas and institutions began to follow colonial expansion into other parts of the world.
In the Romantic era, the modern piano , with a more powerful, sustained tone and a wider range took over from the more delicate-sounding fortepiano. In the orchestra, the existing Classical instruments and sections were retained string section , woodwinds, brass, and percussion , but these sections were typically expanded to make a fuller, bigger sound. For example, while a Baroque orchestra may have had two double bass players, a Romantic orchestra could have as many as ten. The family of instruments used, especially in orchestras, grew.
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A wider array of percussion instruments began to appear. Brass instruments took on larger roles, as the introduction of rotary valves made it possible for them to play a wider range of notes. The size of the orchestra typically around 40 in the Classical era grew to be over Saxophones appear in some scores from the late 19th century onwards. While appearing only as featured solo instruments in some works, for example Maurice Ravel 's orchestration of Modest Mussorgsky 's Pictures at an Exhibition and Sergei Rachmaninoff 's Symphonic Dances , the saxophone is included in other works such as Sergei Prokofiev 's Romeo and Juliet Suites 1 and 2 and many other works as a member of the orchestral ensemble.
The euphonium is featured in a few late Romantic and 20th-century works, usually playing parts marked "tenor tuba", including Gustav Holst 's The Planets , and Richard Strauss 's Ein Heldenleben. Encompassing a wide variety of post-Romantic styles, modernist classical music includes late romantic, impressionist, expressionist, and neoclassical, styles of composition. Modernism — marked an era when many composers rejected certain values of the common practice period, such as traditional tonality, melody, instrumentation, and structure. The high-modern era saw the emergence of neo-classical and serial music.
Modernism in music is a philosophical and aesthetic stance underlying the period of change and development in musical language that occurred from to Two musical movements that were dominant during this time were the impressionist beginning around and the expressionist that started around It was a period of diverse reactions in challenging and reinterpreting older categories of music, innovations that lead to new ways of organizing and approaching harmonic, melodic, sonic, and rhythmic aspects of music, and changes in aesthetic worldviews in close relation to the larger identifiable period of modernism in the arts of the time.
The operative word most associated with it is "innovation".
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Postmodern music is a period of music that began around Many instruments that in the s are associated with popular music filled important roles in early music, such as bagpipes , theorbos , vihuelas , hurdy-gurdies hand-cranked string instruments , accordions , alphorns , hydraulises , calliopes , sistrums , and some woodwind instruments such as tin whistles , panpipes , shawms and crumhorns.
On the other hand, instruments such as the acoustic guitar , once associated mainly with popular music, gained prominence in classical music in the 19th and 20th centuries in the form of the classical guitar and banjo. While equal temperament gradually became accepted as the dominant musical temperament during the 19th century, different historical temperaments are often used for music from earlier periods.
For instance, music of the English Renaissance is often performed in meantone temperament. A few authorities have claimed high-modernism as the beginning of postmodern music from about Contemporary classical music at the beginning of the 21st century was often considered to include all post musical forms. It includes different variations of modernist , postmodern , neoromantic , and pluralist music. Almost all of the composers who are described in music textbooks on classical music and whose works are widely performed as part of the standard concert repertoire are male composers, even though there has been a large number of women composers throughout the classical music period.
Musicologist Marcia Citron has asked "[w]hy is music composed by women so marginal to the standard 'classical' repertoire? Concise Oxford History of Music , Clara S[c]humann is one of the only [ sic ] female composers mentioned. Historically, major professional orchestras have been mostly or entirely composed of musicians who are men. Some of the earliest cases of women being hired in professional orchestras was in the position of harpist. The Vienna Philharmonic , for example, did not accept women to permanent membership until , far later than the other orchestras ranked among the world's top five by Gramophone in Finally, "after being held up to increasing ridicule even in socially conservative Austria, members of the orchestra gathered [on 28 February ] in an extraordinary meeting on the eve of their departure and agreed to admit a woman, Anna Lelkes, as harpist.
In , an article in Mother Jones stated that while "[m]any prestigious orchestras have significant female membership—women outnumber men in the New York Philharmonic 's violin section—and several renowned ensembles, including the National Symphony Orchestra , the Detroit Symphony , and the Minnesota Symphony, are led by women violinists", the double bass , brass, and percussion sections of major orchestras " Classical music has often incorporated elements or material from popular music of the composer's time.
Examples include occasional music such as Brahms' use of student drinking songs in his Academic Festival Overture , genres exemplified by Kurt Weill 's The Threepenny Opera , and the influence of jazz on early and midth-century composers including Maurice Ravel , exemplified by the movement entitled "Blues" in his sonata for violin and piano. Numerous examples show influence in the opposite direction, including popular songs based on classical music, the use to which Pachelbel's Canon has been put since the s, and the musical crossover phenomenon, where classical musicians have achieved success in the popular music arena.
Composers of classical music have often made use of folk music music created by musicians who are commonly not classically trained, often from a purely oral tradition. Certain staples of classical music are often used commercially either in advertising or in movie soundtracks. The same passages are often used by telephone call centres to induce a sense of calm in customers waiting in a queue.
During the s, several research papers and popular books wrote on what came to be called the " Mozart effect ": an observed temporary, small elevation of scores on certain tests as a result of listening to Mozart's works. The approach has been popularized in a book by Don Campbell, and is based on an experiment published in Nature suggesting that listening to Mozart temporarily boosted students' IQ by 8 to 9 points. One of the co-authors of the original studies of the Mozart effect commented "I don't think it can hurt. I'm all for exposing children to wonderful cultural experiences.
But I do think the money could be better spent on music education programs. The study showed that students who actively listen to classical music before studying had higher academic scores. The research further indicated that students who listened to the music prior to an examination also had positively elevated achievement scores.
Students who listened to rock-and-roll or Country music had moderately lower scores. The study further indicated that students who used classical music during the course of study had a significant leap in their academic performance; whereas, those who listened to other types of music had significantly lowered academic scores. The research was conducted over several schools within the Cherry Creek School District and was conducted through the University of Colorado. Mike Manthei and Steve N.
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Hodges and Debra S. Media related to Classical music at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Western art music to the present. For Western art music from to , see Classical period music. For other "classical" and art music traditions, see List of classical and art music traditions.
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For the magazine, see Classical Music magazine. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Woodwind section , Brass section , String section , Percussion section , and Keyboard section. Main article: History of music.
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Main article: Ancient music. Main articles: Medieval music and Renaissance music. See also: List of medieval composers and List of Renaissance composers. See also: List of Baroque composers.
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This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Classical period music. See also: List of Classical-era composers. Main article: Romantic music. See also: List of Romantic-era composers.