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Introduction Abstract. F is a typed functional programming language for the. NET Framework which allows you to write simple code to solve complex problems.

Expert F# 2.0

It combines the succinctness, expressivity, and compositionality of typed functional programming with the runtime support, libraries, interoperability, tools, and object model of. The aim of this book is to help you become an expert in using F and the. NET Framework. This chapter covers simple interactive programming with F and.

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To begin, you should download and install a version of the F distribution from www. You may also have a version on your machine already. The sections that follow use F Interactive, a tool you can use to execute fragments of F code interactively and a convenient way to explore the language. Along the way, you see examples of the most important F language constructs and many important libraries. This chapter covers the core building blocks of functional programming with F , including simple types and function values, pattern matching, lists, options, and sequences; as well as how to declare some of your own simple types.

Chapters 4 through 6 cover imperative programming, generics, and object-oriented programming. In Chapter 3, you saw some of the simple but powerful data types and language constructs that make up F functional programming. The formulas used in spreadsheets are often pure, as is the core of functional programming languages such as Haskell.

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F constructs such as lists, tuples, and function values are all generic , which means they can be instantiated at multiple different types. The F library and the. NET Framework have many other generic types and operations in addition to these. This chapter covers language constructs related to object-oriented OO programming. We assume some familiarity with the basic concepts of OO programming, although you may notice that our discussion of objects deliberately deemphasizes techniques such as implementation inheritance. Packaging code and making it available for people and programs to use is a key part of making the best use of F.

This chapter covers these constructs from the perspective of code organization and packaging.

F is a powerful language with relatively simple constructs. Learning the constructs of the language is easy, but learning how to use the constructs well takes a little more time. This chapter presents some of the common F coding techniques you need as you work across multiple programming domains.

Chapters 3, 4, and 6 covered three well-known programming paradigms in F : functional, imperative , and object-oriented programming. This chapter covers techniques and constructs related to what is essentially a fourth programming paradigm: language-oriented programming. The word language can have a number of meanings in this context. For the purposes of this chapter, this language can have a number of manifestations: One or more concrete representations : for example, using an ASCII text format or an XML representation of arithmetic expressions.

One or more abstract representations : for example, as F values representing the normalized form of an arithmetic expression tree. One or more computational representations , either by functions that compute the values of arithmetic expressions or via other engines that perform analysis, interpretation, compilation, execution, or transformation on language fragments. These can be implemented in F , in another. NET language, or in external engines.

Table of contents

F and the. NET Framework offer a rich set of libraries for functional and imperative programming. This chapter steps back and gives you a broader overview of the. NET and F libraries. GUI applications revolve around events, and F provides a natural way to process events with functions. Graphical interfaces are often developed using visual editors, in particular to build GUIs by assembling controls.

Applications, however, often need drawing capabilities for displaying and manipulating data, which requires custom programming to augment available controls.


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This chapter discusses how to develop graphical applications with F and why the functional traits of the language suit the event-driven programming paradigm typical of GUIs. Symbols are everywhere. You can solve equations, multiply polynomials, approximate functions using series, and differentiate or integrate numerically or symbolically—these are just a few everyday examples of using symbols in mathematics.

In this chapter, you turn your attention to concurrent, parallel, asynchronous , and reactive programs.

Smashing the Myth: Why You Must Learn F# - Even If You Aren’t Writing Rocket Science Apps

Some of the reasons for turning to these techniques are as follows: To achieve better responsiveness in a graphical user interface GUI. To report progress results during a long-running computation and to support cancellation of these computations. Chapters 3, 4, and 6 covered three well-known programming paradigms in F : functional, imperative , and object-oriented programming.

This chapter covers techniques and constructs related to what is essentially a fourth programming paradigm: language-oriented programming. The word language can have a number of meanings in this context. For the purposes of this chapter, this language can have a number of manifestations: One or more concrete representations : for example, using an ASCII text format or an XML representation of arithmetic expressions. One or more abstract representations : for example, as F values representing the normalized form of an arithmetic expression tree.

One or more computational representations , either by functions that compute the values of arithmetic expressions or via other engines that perform analysis, interpretation, compilation, execution, or transformation on language fragments. These can be implemented in F , in another. NET language, or in external engines. F and the. NET Framework offer a rich set of libraries for functional and imperative programming. This chapter steps back and gives you a broader overview of the. NET and F libraries.

Professional F# - O'Reilly Media

GUI applications revolve around events, and F provides a natural way to process events with functions. Graphical interfaces are often developed using visual editors, in particular to build GUIs by assembling controls. Applications, however, often need drawing capabilities for displaying and manipulating data, which requires custom programming to augment available controls. This chapter discusses how to develop graphical applications with F and why the functional traits of the language suit the event-driven programming paradigm typical of GUIs.

Symbols are everywhere. You can solve equations, multiply polynomials, approximate functions using series, and differentiate or integrate numerically or symbolically—these are just a few everyday examples of using symbols in mathematics. In this chapter, you turn your attention to concurrent, parallel, asynchronous , and reactive programs.

Some of the reasons for turning to these techniques are as follows: To achieve better responsiveness in a graphical user interface GUI. To report progress results during a long-running computation and to support cancellation of these computations. Delivering content and applications via web browsers is one of the most important aspects of modern software development. This chapter examines how you can build web applications using F. The topics covered are as follows: Serving static files and dynamic content by directly responding to HTTP requests.

Using the ASP. A walk-through of the ASP. NET essentials: organizing web forms and sites, understanding the various types of server controls web and HTML , user creating controls, and configuring and debugging web applications. The fundamentals of the ASP. NET event model: page and control events, the page life cycle, posting information from a page postback and cross-page posting , and maintaining state. A look at techniques to build client-based web applications, including the use of the WebSharper project.

Software applications deal with data in a wide array of forms: single values such as integers or strings; composite values paired together as tuples, records, or objects; collections of smaller pieces of data represented as lists, sets, arrays, or sequences; XML strings with tags describing the shape and kind of data; and data coming from relational or object-oriented databases, just to name a few.

In this chapter, you take a closer look at lexing and parsing, topics introduced briefly in Chapters 9 and In particular, the chapter introduces the lexer and parser generators, fslex and fsyacc, that come with the F distribution. A typical scenario when these techniques and tools can come in handy is the following: You want to read user-readable input that has a well-defined syntax.

You have a type often an abstract syntax tree [AST] type to represent this input. Software integration and reuse is becoming one of the most relevant activities of software development nowadays. This chapter discusses how F programs can interoperate with the outside world, accessing code available in the form of DLLs and COM components.

Anecdotal evidence indicates that functional programming frequently leads to a substantially reduced bug rate for good programmers. This is primarily because programs built using functional techniques tend to be highly compositional, building correct programs out of correct building blocks. The functional programming style avoids or substantially reduces the use of side effects in the program, one property that makes programs more compositional.

However, debugging and testing are still essential activities to ensure that a program is as close as possible to its specifications. Bugs and misbehaviors are facts of life, and F programmers must learn techniques to find and remove them. This book deals with F , a language situated in the context of. NET-based software construction and engineering. The previous chapter touched on some important tools. This final chapter looks at some of the methodological issues related to F library design: Designing vanilla.