These base products are then used to make consumer products, as well as in the manufacturing, service, construction, agriculture, and other industries.
Major industries served include rubber and plastic products, textiles, apparel, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and primary metals. Many coatings that we encounter daily in transportation products cars, trains, planes, etc. In addition to aesthetics, coatings provide vital protection of the object from degradation by environmental factors, such as sunlight, moisture or oxygen. Steel bridges from the s are still functional today largely because of the polymeric coatings that have protected them from corrosion. Modern medicine relies heavily on recent advances in polymer science.
Medical applications of polymer chemistry span seemingly mundane materials such as latex gloves, bandages, and tubing, to applications as advanced as self-tying sutures, implantable medical devices, and artificial joints. Research in drug delivery is an excellent example of the impact polymer chemistry has had on the medical world: recent advancements allow for targeted delivery of therapeutics directly to tumor tissue using specially designed polymeric nanomaterials.
Advancements in biodegradable polymers have created products for use in biomedical engineering applications as scaffolds that support tissue growth, then degrade slowly once implanted in the body. Additionally, efforts to develop polymers with lower environmental impact for more durable goods are on-going. Many suppliers conduct a complete life cycle analysis, that considers everything from starting materials through final disposal, including impact on the environment and health.
Using starting materials, i. For existing synthetic polymers, attempts are made to decrease the use of organic solvents and increase recycling and reuse. For example, for PET, ethylene glycol produced from natural feedstocks can be used.
This thermoplastic can be used in packaging and many other applications. PLA can be composted at its end-of-life, or hydrolyzed to its starting monomers for reuse. Polymers are ideally suited to applications in nanotechnology.
The size of an individual polymer molecule can be on the nanometer size scale; by exploiting this feature polymers can be used as nano-sized building blocks to create devices with tiny features that are inaccessible by any other means. Recent breakthroughs in polymer chemistry permit the synthesis of new materials that can self-assemble into structures with nano-scale order in solution or in the bulk. These advanced materials have promising applications in the fields of nanomedicine, electronics, solar energy, and many more.
Materials at the forefront of this field include carbon-based carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes that are used in electrical applications, as conductive adhesives, as high strength materials, as field emitters, in hydrogen and ion storage, as chemical and genetic probes, in solar cells, fibers, catalyst supports, superconductors, fibers and fabrics, energy storage, medical applications, films, nanomotors, elastomers, and many more places.
Polymeric materials are used throughout the entire oil and gas industry value chain, from upstream oil and gas production activities, to midstream, and finally downstream refinery production of fuels and specialty chemicals.
They are often used in demanding conditions that include high temperatures, high pressures, and brine. Solid-state polymers include engineering materials such as plastics, fibers, and elastomers for use in oil well sites and off-shore platforms, with applications including construction of structures such as pipelines, proppants in hydraulic fracturing, and as coatings. Polymeric additives are used in upstream oil production applications as drilling fluids, well stimulants, corrosion inhibitors, scaling inhibitors, and viscosity modifiers.
They are even used as components of cements used in protecting casings downhole. In downstream operations, polymeric additives are used to improve performance features or overcome operational issues in the refinery, distribution systems and storage tanks, and in different fuel transport and combustion applications. Polymers may be used as stand-alone products to resolve specific issues at a refinery, may be combined with other products to create a multi-functional package for use in finished fuels or lubricants for the automotive industry, among other uses.
Some specific examples of polymeric additives used in downstream applications include synthetic base stocks for lubricants, pipeline drag reducers, cold flow improvers, demulsifiers, deposit control additives, dispersants, friction modifiers, corrosion inhibitors, antifoamants, and viscosity improvers.
Rubbers are polymers that when stretched or deformed return to their original or near original shape, and are found in in tires, conveyor belts, hoses, toys, automobile parts, and thousands of other products. Rubber, often a mixture of polymers, has high resistance to heat, moisture, and other materials.
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Rubber can be found in nature in trees, shrubs, and other plants, and can be produced through chemical means synthetic rubber. A third class called thermoplastic elastomers return to their original or near original shape when stretched or deformed, but melt when exposed to high temperatures and can be reprocessed. The majority of natural rubber is produced in Asia, but it can also be produced in India, Africa, Central and South America. It is sold as a commodity though traders. Synthetic rubber is produced by many companies around the world including Firestone, Goodyear , Lanxess , Michelin, Zeon and hundreds of others.
Synthetic rubber is sold either directly from these companies or through distributers. This polymer is used in a wide range of textiles, with the largest application being in everyday clothing — often as a blend with cotton — and athletic apparel.
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It is also used in a range of nonwoven fabrics. The next most common class is polyamide, also known as nylon, and used in intimate apparel, workwear, industrial fabrics, outdoor apparel, and carpet. The two most important polyamides are polyamide-6,6 and polyamide-6, which are structurally similar and have similar properties. Synthetic fibers of polypropylene polyolefin are used in carpeting, nonwovens, and some athletic apparel more commonly in Europe.
Polymers are also used as coatings to impart specific properties to fabrics, including oil and stain resistant treatments poly perfluoroalkyl acrylates , wrinkle-resistant treatments for cotton fabrics glyoxal resins , and hydrophilic treatments which impart water absorbing properties — especially for polyester fabrics used in athletic apparel.
Brandon Chance Princeton University. Gregory Tew University of Massachusetts Amherst. Victoria Finkenstadt U. Department of Agriculture.
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Communities Find a chemistry community of interest and connect on a local and global level. Discover Chemistry Explore the interesting world of science with articles, videos and more. Awards Recognizing and celebrating excellence in chemistry and celebrate your achievements. Funding Funding to support the advancement of the chemical sciences through research projects. Polymer Chemistry. Adhesives Adhesives are part of everyday life. Agriculture Polymers are used in everything from seed coats to enhance germination to containers holding fresh produce in the grocery store; from mulch films to control weeds and conserve water to plastic pots in greenhouses.
Each instructor will allocate the time for lectures and labs to best fit the topic of the day and provide lecture notes.
TAs will prepare the instrument user guides, which will be used during the lab sessions. The format will consist of a lecture period 1 hour followed by a practical period 1 hour. The same instructor will teach both periods. Attendees will need to have a laptop or share a laptop to perform analysis on pre-gathered data.
View the full workshop schedule pdf. Monday, , May 22 - am to Friday, , May 26 - am. Workshop attendees should follow the Lab Safety Rules: Always wear safety glasses.
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