The benchmark Peoples of Iran map divides the country into ethnolinguistic groups. In this simplistic equation of language and culture, all ethnic Luri areas including most or all areas where Laki is spoken are labelled as Luri-speaking, thus falling under the umbrella of the Southwestern language family. In addition to their status as somewhat independent cultural units, a recognition of Pish-e Kuh and Posht-e Kuh as linguistic realities may help solve some of the apparent contradictions between existing accounts of the language, since satisfactory accounts are typically limited to one of the two groupings.
The delineation of the Posht-e Kuh Laki language varieties is outside the scope of this paper, but may be carried out along the lines applied to Pish-e Kuh in the sections that follow. The degree of historical divergence exhibited by Laki in comparison to other Kurdish varieties, as outlined in these sources, is thus open to interpretation.
Pish-e Kuh Laki is poorly known outside of Luristan. Further, bilingualism in Luri is almost ubiquitous. Taken together, these factors suggest that the future of the Pish-e Kuh Laki language is threatened. Since there is no record of such a political structure, a rapid historical expansion may well account for the uniformity of the language.
This phenomenon will be addressed further below. Although some Luri-speaking Lurs consider Posht-e Kuh Laki a variety of Kurdish, speakers of the language claim that it is a language distinct from Kurdish as well as Luri. Speakers who have an awareness of language varieties in other Laki-speaking areas insist further that these are distinct from the language of Pish-e Kuh. Amanollahi states additionally that Pish-e Kuh Laki shows a high level of similarity with Gurani Hawrami and the Kermanshah dialect of Farsi, both of which are in the general vicinity. The relationship among these varieties needs to be pursued further.
As the previous section indicates, the lexical similarity between the two varieties is high, even conspicuous. This is a higher level of lexical similarity here than among the Luri languages Luristani, Bakhtiari, and Southern Luri. In the following tables, Bakhtiari has been chosen as a representative of other Luri varieties. As in the previous table, Bakhtiari represents the other Luri languages. Lazard, ibid. However, he has established a number of algorithms for distinguishing between the Northwestern and Southwestern families. While he admits that the selected phonological distinctions are not infallible, he backs up each algorithm with comparative data from about twenty language varieties.
In the fourth case, Laki uses a root which is unrelated to the prototype of either group.
I submit these examples as evidence that Pish-e Kuh Laki is indeed a Northwestern language. This realization is relevant to an additional discussion, namely that of the ethnic origins of the Lurs, who have at times been considered close relations of the Kurds. Verbs are given as perfective roots unless an imperfective form is indicated. Importantly, the ethnic and linguistic connection between Pish-e Kuh Laki and Posht-e Kuh Laki remains poorly understood.
Or to something else? Pish-e Kuh Laki is thus more closely related to Kurdish than to the Luri languages. Vancouver, B. Munich: Lincom Europa. How many languages? Wiesbaden: Reichert, pp. Languages of the world.
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Dallas, Tex. Fort Worth, Texas. Fresno, California. Honolulu, Hawaii. Indianapolis, Indiana. Irvine, California. Jacksonville, Florida. Jersey City, New Jersey. Kansas City, Missouri. Lansing, Michigan. Las Vegas, Nevada. Lexington, Kentucky. Los Angeles,California. Lincoln, Nebraska. Little Rock, Arkansas. Long Beach, California. Louisville, Kentucky.
Memphis, Tennessee. Mesa, Arizona. Miami, Florida. Minneapolis, Minnesota. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Montgomery, Alabama. Nashville, Tennessee. New Orleans, Louisiana. Newark, New Jersey. New York City, New York. Norfolk, Virginia. Oakland, California. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Omaha, Nebraska. Orlando, Florida. Overland Park, Kansas. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Phoenix, Arizona.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Portland, Oregon. Raleigh, North Carolina. Richmond, Virginia. Riverside, California. Sacramento, California. Louis, Missouri. Paul, Minnesota. Salt Lake City, Utah. San Antonio, Texas. San Diego, California. Covering an area of 19, square kilometers, Ilam Province includes the cities of Ilam, Dehloran , Darreh Shahr , Eyvan and Arkwaz; when the regions of Iran were created in , the province was placed in Region 4. Ilam province covers an area of about 4. The northwest-southeast alignment of Zagros Mountains forms the terrain of the area; the two important mountain ridges are Dinar Kuh.
Being located in the western-most part of Zagross Mountains gives the province its special landscape including deserts in the western counties of Mehran and Dehloran bordering Iraq which feature hot summers and mild winters and low precipitations and the mountainous regions of east like Abdanan and Darreh Shahr which are milder and receive higher precipitations in form of rain, although snow is not rare. The northern region of Ilam, due to its altitude, experiences cold winters and mild summers and receives the highest amount of precipitation in the province.
The variety of land is one of the main reasons.
Ilam Province is divided into 10 counties: Ilam is inhabited by various people, with Kurds in the majority with In Abdanan and Mehran the majority of residents speak in Kurdish and Luri respectively. In Darreh Shahr, the majority of residents speak in Laki and Lurish, there are some tribes of Lurs such as Shuhans and Kaydkhordeh living in the southern and eastern parts of the province; the north is inhabited by Kurdish tribes who speak two dialects: Kalhuri and Feyli. Most residents in Ilam province are Shi'a Muslims. Limited archaeological studies and discoveries indicate 6, years of tribal residence in Ilam.
Historical evidence indicates. In some of the epigraphs left from Sumerian history, this territory was called Alam, Alamo, or Alamto meaning the high lands where the sun rises. In October , officials announced that dozens of historical objects dating back to 1, years ago have been discovered during archaeological excavations in the village of Sarab-e Kalan.
The name "Pahla" was used for the area include Ilam province by the early Muslim geographer until the 13th century, after which when Lurs from Luristan captured the Kurdish populated regions of Ilam and part of Kermanshah provinces the name "Luristan or Pushtkooh" came to replace it. Due to the name of Luristan or Pushtkooh, the Kurdish population in Pushtkooh are called Lur wrongly.
Arabic texts recorded the name as "Fahla" or " Bahla ". Subsequently, "Fahla" evolved to'Faila' and'Faili' -- the modern name of the Pahli Kurds, it is worthy to note that still a small town called'Pahla' exist in the south of the major city of Ilam and occupied by Pahli Kurds. It was part of the Achaemenid Empire. Existence of numerous historical vestiges in Ilam province belonging to the Sassanid period indicates the specific importance of the region in that time.
Kurdish tribes governed the region from the late 11th century till the early 13th century.. When Iran was divided into provinces in , Ilam became a part of Lorestan and Khuzestan provinces, only becoming a province by itself. During the Iran—Iraq War , Ilam province suffered and Iraq's intense bombings left no economic infrastructure for the province.
Ilam thus remains one of Iran's more undeveloped provinces. Ilam's unemployment rate was Only in recent years has the central government began investing in advanced industries like Petrochemical facilities, with Japanese help, in Ilam. Ilam has a bright future in the tourist sector, with historical sites listed under Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization , though it remains undeveloped.
Vernacular A vernacular , or vernacular language, is the lect used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population. It is distinguished from national, liturgical or scientific idiom , or a lingua franca , used to facilitate communication across a large area, it is native spoken informally rather than written and seen as of lower status than more codified forms. It can be regional dialect, sociolect or an independent language.
In the context of language standardization, the term "vernacular" is used to refer to nonstandard dialects of a certain language, as opposed to its prestige normative forms. Usage of the word "vernacular" is not recent. In , James Howell wrote: Concerning Italy , doubtless there were divers before the Latin did spread all over that Country.
Here, mother language and dialect are in use in a modern sense. According to Merriam-Webster , "vernacular" was brought into the English language as early as from the Latin vernaculus, in figurative use in Classical Latin as "national" and "domestic", having been derived from vernus and verna, a male or female slave born in the house rather than abroad. The figurative meaning was broadened from vernacula. Varro , the classical Latin grammarian , used the term vocabula vernacula, " termes de la langue nationale" or "vocabulary of the national language" as opposed to foreign words.
In general linguistics , a vernacular is contrasted with a lingua franca, a third-party language in which persons speaking different vernaculars not understood by each other may communicate. For instance, in Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly works had been written in Latin, serving as a lingua franca.
Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular; the Divina Commedia , the Cantar de Mio Cid , The Song of Roland are examples of early vernacular literature in Italian and French, respectively. In Europe , Latin was used instead of vernacular languages in varying forms until c. In religion, Protestantism was a driving force in the use of the vernacular in Christian Europe , the Bible being translated from Latin into vernacular languages with such works as the Bible in Dutch : published in by Jacob van Liesvelt.
Certain groups, notably Traditionalist Catholics , continue to practice Latin Mass. In India , the 12th century Bhakti movement led to the translation of Sanskrit texts to the vernacular. In science, an early user of the vernacular was Galileo , writing in Italian c. Latin continues to be used in certain fields of science, notably binomial nomenclature in biology, while other fields such as mathematics use vernacular. Certain languages have both a classical form and various vernacular forms, with two used examples being Arabic and Chinese: see Varieties of Arabic and Chinese language.
The vernacular is often contrasted with a liturgical language, a specialized use of a former lingua franca. In Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit or in Tamil in Tamil country. Sanskrit was a lingua franca among the non-Indo-European languages of the Indian subcontinent and became more of one as the spoken language, or prakrits , began to diverge from it in different regions. With the rise of the bhakti movement from the 12th century onwards, religious works were created in the other languages: Hindi , Kannada and many others. For example, the Ramayana , one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit, had vernacular versions such as Ranganadha Ramayanam composed in Telugu by Gona Buddha Reddy in the 15th century; these circumstances are a contrast between a vernacular and language variant used by the same speakers.
Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians , Thracians , Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey.
Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. The Kurdish—Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since in the southeast of the country.
Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in , Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in , joined the EU Customs Union in and started accession negotiations with the European Union in which have been stopped by the EU in due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule".
Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history. Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess ; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling " Turkey " dates back to at least Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia , from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace , has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about BC.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the laki language. For the Northeast Caucasian language, see Lak language. Language family. Main article: Kurdish phonology. Retrieved 27 May Languages of Iran. Retrieved 25 May Glottolog 3.
Erik Anonby - Google Scholar Citations
Laki's disputed identity in the Luristan province of Iran". The Iranian Languages. Walter de Gruyter. Die iranischen Sprachen in Gegenwart und Geschichte in German.
Iranica Online. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Iranian Studies. Kurdish languages.