He believed that the tones that make up music are based on the responses of the human heart to the external things that it encounters. A well-governed kingdom would create peaceful music filled with joy. According to Mencius fourth century B. Mencius answered that the only thing that mattered was whether or not he loved his subjects. According to Chinese mythology , the cabinet in the administration of the legendary Emperor Shun included a Minister of Music Kui who was responsible for teaching music to the eldest sons of the aristocracy.
The first major well-documented flowering of Chinese music was music for the qin during the Tang Dynasty — C. In ancient China, the position of musicians was much lower than that of painters, though music was seen as central to the harmony and longevity of the state. Almost every emperor took folk songs seriously, sending officers to collect songs in order to understand the sentiments of the people.
Under the influence of Confucianism, and later Zen Buddhism, music was considered a scholarly art and an important form of self-expression for the educated elite. The qin became a popular instrument with scholars, and figures in many works of art and literature as a symbol of educated refinement. The first European to reach China with a musical instrument was the Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci , who presented a harpsichord to the Ming imperial court and trained four eunuchs how to use it in .
The New Culture Movement of the s and s evoked a lasting interest in Western music. A number of Chinese musicians returned from studying abroad to perform Western classical music, composing work based on Western musical notation system. The Kuomintang tried to sponsor modern music adaptations via the Shanghai Conservatory of Music despite the ongoing political crisis.
Twentieth-century cultural philosophers like Xiao Youmei, Cai Yuanpei, Feng Zikai and Wang Guangqi wanted to see Chinese music adapted to the best standard possible, though there was no consensus as to what that standard might be. Symphony orchestras were formed in most major cities and performed to a wide audience in the concert halls and on radio.
Many of the performers added jazz influences to traditional music, adding xylophones , saxophones and violins , among other instruments. After the Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art, a large-scale campaign was launched in the Communist controlled areas to adapt folk music to create revolutionary songs to educate the largely illiterate rural population on party goals.
Musical forms considered superstitious or anti-revolutionary were repressed, and harmonies and bass lines were added to traditional songs. One example is The East Is Red, a folksong from northern Shaanxi which was adapted into a nationalist hymn. Of particular note is the composer, Xian Xinghai, who was active during this period, and composed the Yellow River Cantata which is the most well-known of all of his works.
Maoists regarded pop music as a decline of the art form in the mainland. Revolutionary songs would become heavily promoted by the state. The Cultural Revolution and other Maoist initiatives made revolutionary songs the only acceptable genre of music, to the point that it overshadowed other genres and almost defined what mainland Chinese music was.
The music progressed into Chinese rock, which remained popular in the s. However, music in China is dominated by the state, as the television broadcasting, media, and major concert halls are all controlled by the Communist party. The government chose not to support Chinese rock, by limiting its exposure and airtime. As a result, the genre never fully reached the mainstream.
China has a high rate of piracy and difficulty enforcing intellectual property rights. As a result, record companies often make the decision to release new Chinese music albums in Taiwan or Hong Kong first; normally there is a delay before the products are released on the mainland, with occasional exceptions, such as the work of Cui Jian, which was released in Taiwan, Hong Kong and the mainland simultaneously . The delay in the release of new music is also a major factor in driving piracy, since individuals would rather pirate music from outside mainland China.
The modern market for music in China is hindered, not only by issues of property rights, but by other factors such as profit margin, individual income and other economic constraints. Both events draw sizable outdoor crowds.
Today, Chinese rock music is centered almost exclusively in Beijing and Shanghai, and has very limited influence over Chinese society. Wuhan and Sichuan are sometimes considered pockets of rock music culture as well. The situation of Chinese rock highlights the significant cultural, political and social differences between China and the West, and even between different regions within China.
While rock has existed in China for decades, if first received international attention when Cui Jian played with The Rolling Stones in , at the age of Traditional music in China is played on solo instruments or in small ensembles of plucked and bowed stringed instruments, flutes, and various cymbals, gongs, and drums.
Instrumental pieces played on an erhu or dizi are popular, and are often available outside of China, but the pipa and zheng music, which are more traditional, are more popular in China itself. The qin is perhaps the most revered instrument in China, even though very few people know what it is, or have seen and heard one being played.
The zheng, a form of zither, is most popular in Henan , Chaozhou, Hakka and Shandong. The pipa, a kind of lute, believed to have been introduced from the Arabian Peninsula area during the sixth century and improved, is most popular in Shanghai and surrounding areas.
Han Chinese make up some 92 percent of the population of China. Ethnic Han music consists of heterophonic music, in which the musicians play versions of a single melodic line. Percussion accompanies most music, dance, and opera. Chinese opera has been popular for centuries. Originally performed only at court and for the entertainment of the aristocracy, the art form was gradually modified for public entertainment, and Beijing opera became widely popular.
The music is often guttural with high-pitched vocals, usually accompanied by suona, jinghu, other kinds of string instruments , and percussion. Other types of opera include clapper opera, Pingju, Cantonese opera, puppet opera, Kunqu, Sichuan opera, Qinqiang, ritual masked opera and Huangmei xi. Han folk music thrives at weddings and funerals and usually includes a form of oboe called a suona and percussive ensembles called chuigushou.
The music is diverse, sometimes jolly, sometimes sad, and often based on Western pop music and TV theme songs. Ensembles consisting of mouth organs sheng , shawms suona , flutes dizi and percussion instruments especially yunluo gongs are popular in northern villages; their music is descended from the imperial temple music of Beijing , Xi'an, Wutai shan and Tianjin. Xi'an drum music, performed with wind and percussive instruments, is popular around Xi'an, and has received some popularity outside China in a highly-commercialized form.
Another important instrument is the sheng, pipes, an ancient instrument that is an ancestor of all Western free reed instruments, such as the accordion. In southern Fujian and Taiwan , Nanyin or Nanguan is a genre of traditional ballads. They are sung by a woman accompanied by a xiao and a pipa and other traditional instruments. The music is generally sorrowful and mourning and typically deals with love-stricken women.
Further south, in Shantou, Hakka and Chaozhou, erxian and zheng ensembles are popular. Sizhu ensembles use flutes and bowed or plucked string instruments to make harmonious and melodious music that has become popular in the West among some listeners.
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The Act of Musical Composition - Studies in the Creative Process.pdf
Interviewing Management. Compiling a Complete List of Fields. Chapter 7. Establishing Table Structures. Defining the Preliminary Table List. Defining the Final Table List. Associating Fields with Each Table. Refining the Fields. Refining the Table Structures. Chapter 8. Why Keys Are Important. Establishing Keys for Each Table. One, two , three, go! Here are more opportunities to teach the names of these musical elements.
And the beginning, middle, end formula can have endless variants — yet it supplies what is sorely missing from most beginning improvisation — a conclusive ending! Ternary Form leads quite naturally into musical storytelling. As well as teaching about famous soundtrack composers, program music appreciation is fair game — you can listen to some Nineteenth-century piece together, and then imagine the musical story.
In the first part of this phase, the students often try to imitate the pieces they are learning, playing single notes with both hands at the same time. At this point, they often stumble on something that sounds good to them — and they have developed enough awareness and skill to reproduce it. Earlier this week, I was improvising with a young student. She discovered a five note motive that she really liked.
After playing it a few times, I suggested that she try and do something new with it — add a note to the end or the middle, play it higher, play it lower. Others, while their improvisations are still much more contracted and melodic than the wild expansions of Phase 1, are not yet at the point of being able to reproduce short motives.
Where Phase 1 composition works by adding gentle structural constraints to expansive improvisations, Phase 2 composers benefit from structured expansion of their concepts. Sometimes that alone is enough for them to pin something down. Other times, they may benefit from more help from you — mirroring back to them, for example, until the melody is set.
Now that the student has composed a fixed melody, alternating between fixed and improvised sections is a good way to bring Phase 1 and Phase 2 thinking together. Phase 2 students are actually ripe for more advanced compositional techniques of motivic development. What would happen if we played your song…. That sounds nice! Did you know that composers have a fancy word for playing something backwards? They call it retrograde. Practice playing and singing that a few times until you can remember.
Composers call that transposition. Using techniques like retrograde, transposition, sequences and inversion unpacks the motive and expands it into a longer melody. The melody can then be set into phrases, phrases into sections, and so on until your student has quite a substantial composition.
ODRL Information Model 2.2
You can then add your own accompaniment, or help the students work out a left hand part depending on their abilities. As creative piano teachers, we all have observed that younger students tend to be less inhibited and more playful. Up to now, however, I encourage the students to resist writing it down.
Also, the notation system has a whole separate learning curve. Combining short composition exercises with notation accelerates the learning for both.