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The system is similar to the Explorable A Patchwork Darwinge , only a bit more animalistc and dynamically slightly different. However, for this one here, you need a bit more patience in order to observe interesting effects.

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This explorable illustrates how the combination of variation and selection in a model biological system can increase the average fitness of a population of mutants of a species over time. Fitness of each mutant quantifies how well it can reproduce compared to other mutants. Variation introduces new mutants. Sometimes a mutant's fitness is lower than its parent's, sometimes higher. When lower, the mutant typically goes extinct, if higher the mutant can outperform others and proliferate in the population.

This way mutants with higher fitness are naturally selected. This explorable illustrates how a school of fish can collectively find an optimal location, e. The explorable is based on the model discussed in Flock'n Roll , which you may want to explore first.

Biological Complexity and Integrative Levels of Organization | Learn Science at Scitable

This explorable illustrates the dynamics of a predator-prey model on a hexagonal lattice. Enabling JavaScript in your browser will allow you to experience all the features of our site. Learn how to enable JavaScript on your browser. Internationally established experts present the inspiring new science of complexity, which discovers new general laws covering wide range of science areas.

The book offers a broader view on complexity based on the expertise of the related areas of chemistry, biochemistry, biology, ecology, and physics. Contains methodologies for assessing the complexity of systems that can be directly applied to proteomics and genomics, and network analysis in biology, medicine, and ecology. See All Customer Reviews.

LO: The students become qualified to recognize the exceptional functional position of tropical habitats within the biosphere and to also explain their importance within our ecosystem.

They are able to evaluate the consequences of manipulating those tropical systems and can judge relevant issues on environmental protection. The students become familiar with a variety of aspects on the biological specialties and structural characteristics of tropical systems. In the seminar the students learn to perform problem based scientific literature research, to present recent publications and to critically discuss these new findings. C: The lecture will deal with the ecological and environmental constraints under which plants grow and develop biogeography, biodiversity and with the interactions of plants with abiotic and biotic environmental factors e.

Faculty of Biology and Ecology

Especially, the evolutionary adaptations on the physiological and organismic level will be emphasized stress and defense reactions, carnivory, plant protection. Corresponding experimental approaches are illustrated. Blackwell Publ. LO: Participants are qualified to identify and interpret ecological interrelations and to discuss them within the scope of the current state of knowledge. The lecture series introduces into the fields of cell biology, developmental biology, microbiology, biophysics, bioinformatics. Based on current concepts in molecular biology, the lectures elucidate these with respect to the particular disciplines.

Recommended literature: Alberts B, Bray D. Bioinformatics is presented as a computer based molecular biology tool allowing time saving experimental planning. The third part of the lecture series is dealing with fundamental aspects of prokaryotes and microbiology in general. Pearson educ. LO: The students become familiar with theoretical aspects and principles in cell biology, developmental biology, microbiology, biophysics, bioinformatics.

With several bioinformatics tools, they become familiar how to use computer based approaches to address and resolve problems in these bioscientific fields. Timing plays an important role in all living systems. Animals make use of endogenous clocks to predict and adapt to daily or seasonal changes in environmental parameters. To be at the right time at the right place is of great fitness relevance if -for example- a mating partner or enough food has to be found. Many mutualistic, antagonistic or social interactions can only take place if animals are at the same time at the same place and in the appropriate developmental stage.

The lecture series give an introduction into the mechanisms underlying the temporal organization in the animal kingdom. Adopting an integrative approach, the lecture goes from timing mechanisms on the neuronal level to individual behaviour and then to interactions in social groups, populations or partners in complex and variable ecosystems. LO: The students get an overview in organismic biology including neurobiology, behavioral biology and ecology.

They experience the complex interactions of living organisms including the importance of time and place to result in successful reproduction or synergy. Special topics are the physiological bases of the interactions between plants and abiotic and biotic environmental factors e. Working concepts and complex experiments are designed, and the results will be documented and presented as presentations, publications or protocols. The participants are involved in ongoing projects and deepen their knowledge on applying special methods, especially in ecophysiology, but also in chemical analysis.

LO: The participants gain qualifications in performing scientific work in the field of physiological plant ecology and are able to apply adequate methods. They do this work to a large extent on their own responsibility by performing advanced experiments, their documentation and evaluation. Based on the results obtained, the ecophysiological and analytical methods applied e.

The progress of the experiments and their contribution to more general projects are documented and presented as presentations, publications or protocols. LO: The participants are qualified to independently perform scientific work in the field of physiological plant ecology and are able to assess the work in the context of current knowledge. Special topics are the molecular and chemical bases of the interactions between plants and abiotic and biotic environmental factors e. Working concepts and complex experiments are designed, and the results are documented and presented as presentations, publications or protocols.

References and Recommended Reading

LO: The students gain qualifications in performing scientific work in the field of molecular and chemical plant ecology and are able to apply adequate methods. PCR, cloning strategies, chromatography, mass spectrometry are critically assessed, and, where necessary, modified.


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LO: The participants are qualified to independently perform scientific work in the field of molecular and chemical plant ecology and are able to assess the work in the context of current knowledge. The practical courses can be chosen from the following electives:. LO: The students expand their knowledge on ecological theories and current research issues in Animal Ecology. They are qualified to design, perform, statistically analyze, and interpret scientific research. They are familiar with animal ecological methods and possible sources of error in data interpretation.

They deepen their knowledge of Biology and Ecology of important functional taxa of arthropods. The acquired knowledge qualifies the students to perform scientific activities in the content of F2 internship or a master thesis.

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In F2 internship, student work on one scientific question as independent as possible. It includes the development of hypothesis, preparation of a work plan, and implementation of data collection, experiment in the field, green house or laboratory, and statistical analysis of the data. The results are presented in a protocol, which resembles the form and content of a short scientific paper with introduction, material and method, results and discussions. The results are presented in the final seminar.


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In the various working groups of the department of animal Ecology and tropical Biology, there are many possibilities to conduct an F2 internship in Germany, Europe or in the tropics. They can be carried out in an ongoing research project of the institute or in cooperation with other institutions. More detailed informations are posted on the board of the department or directly obtained in the working group.

LO: The students acquire a comprehensive experimental and methodological knowledge in scientific handling of current animal Ecology and tropical Biology research questions. They are qualified to conduct scientific work, perform statistical analysis and interpretation. The acquired knowledge qualifies students for independent scientific activities as part of the master thesis.