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The Balkans and the West. The Novel and Europe. Continue shopping. Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout. Remove FREE. Unavailable for purchase. Several chapters and sections of chapters have been previously pub- lished and many have been rehearsed and refi ned by conference presenta- tions, as invited and uninvited contributions to a broad range of debates in Irish studies.

Consequently I have benefitted enormously from a very broad range of editors, colleagues, collaborators, students, librarians, conference organizers, readers and audiences who have commented on aspects of this work as it has circulated and developed over the years and who facilitated that development. I would like to particularly thank Moynagh Sullivan for years of debate on the themes of this book and to thank Moynagh, Anne Mulhall and Wanda Balzano for the opportunity to contribute to key vol- umes in the re-invention of Irish studies in the last few years, which re-ig- nited a then dormant writing project.

The research projects in which I have been involved since have all informed this work in various ways. The interdisciplinary context of our collaborations has had a crucial role in the development of this book, on the one hand deepening my understand- ing of historical forces and archival sources and on the other liberating me from a rigid chronology. Needless to say both the interpretations of the historical record and the temporal discontinuities remain my responsibil- ity. Diane Negra initially emboldened me to venture into television studies.

Clair Wills and the London Irish Studies Seminar invited me to talk about Brenton, Ireland and spies at a crucial juncture and their feedback was invaluable. I am very grateful to Elizabeth Meaney Final pages. Karen Corrigan and Frank Phelan have helped out and encouraged person- ally and professionally from the beginning. My thanks also to John Geary and Bernie Quinn for their encouragement at a vital moment. As always in acknowledging the anthology, I remember the contribution of Siobhan Kilfeather to debates about sexuality and gender in Irish Studies.

Mary Daly, originally as Director of the Meaney Final pages. In the School of English, Drama and Film Anne Mulhall, Danielle Clarke and Emma Radley have been great colleagues in developing courses which have been based on and fed into this research over the last few years. Lexy Howe at Kudos kindly provided me with a copy of a relevant episode of Spooks.

Twentieth Century: Major Writers and Works

I have been tremendously fortunate in the quality of postgraduate and postdoctoral students and researchers among whom I have had the oppor- tunity to work over the last decade. Teaching the M. A class in Gender, Sexuality and Culture has been a great way of exploring ideas over the last two years and I am grateful to them and to a wide range of undergraduate students for the opportunity to discuss, test out and get the benefit of their responses to ideas and texts.

The last stage of production of this book depended on the kindness—and endless patience—of a virtual stranger, Michael Watters of Integrated Book Tech- nology, who got me through through proofi ng and indexing at a difficult time by the power of his goodwill. Gerry Dowling has, as always, kept me going, kept me thinking and kept me sane.

Because this is a book about change, written by a woman living through economic, social, political and personal change, I like to think it is engaged in remembering the past to imagine the future. My mother, May, whom I was gradually losing as I fi nished this, taught me by example that change is in our own hands and the future can be made very different from the past. The changeable future she gave me now belongs to my daughters, Ciara and Grainne, and their infi nite potential.

And so this book is for all four of them, who map out for me how much is possible. Anthony Roche, New Island Press, , pp. Meaney Final pages. However, her primary focus has been on the fabric of ordinary lives, on the changing social, psychological and emo- tional habits, norms and crises of Irish lives lived, for the most part, rather quietly. While her fiction began chronicling decaying big houses shipwrecked by history, her milieu has predominantly been the small house novel. For this reason it is useful to begin an account of cultural change in Ireland with two scenes from her novels, thirty years apart, both domestic and family scenes that indicate a great deal about the public world outside.

Her families are allegories of the nation in general and very particular in their miseries—and joys.

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They were sitting as the perfect family should sit in apparent peace around the table. The mother poured golden tea from a large tin pot. He grunted. Anyone coming in now, Joe thought to himself, would think how nice. How lovely. The father is an alcoholic, trading on the myth of his heroism in an unidentified IRA campaign. His compulsively house-proud wife works at the local bakery, the only one of her family productively employed. Characteristically for the s, all of this is filtered through the consciousness of the youngest son, Joe, a schoolboy who writes poetry and sets the whole narrative in motion with his friendship and doomed infatuation for a young English teacher from Wicklow.

I see only sadness. So much for the heroes. To drown in your words. Kill the shadows on our skin. Killing time, my friend. The sleeve notes quote W. In Shadows On Our Skin the song fascinates Joe and the novel references the heroic sacrifice of Cuchulainn and the female allegori- cal figure for Ireland in the name of the teacher, Kathleen.

In marked contrast to the tragic structure of the family in Shadows on Our Skin, the family in Foolish Mortals, published in , is comi- cally amorphous. Shall we their fond pageant see? Lord, what fools these mortals be! Stand aside: the noise they make Will cause Demetrius to awake.

Then will two at once woo one; That must needs be sport alone; And those things do best please me That befal preposterously. In contrast to the Logans this group is defi ned by the intricacies of love and desire and consequently it has a very tenuous grip on the past. In this respect he represents a version of twenty-fi rst-century Ireland. Another version shadows and over- shadows him, however. His mother, Tash, once a prodigious artist, forgets how to paint and quite quickly ceases to be: Meaney Final pages.

Her mother-in-law derails this attempt to stabilize the new order through continuity with past ritual. Neither family nor history is predictable and death disrupts the celebration of life. They all stood and watched her with awe, waiting for the high note. He described the Soviet incursion as "the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War".

In January , four years prior to becoming president, Ronald Reagan bluntly stated, in a conversation with Richard V. Allen , his basic expectation in relation to the Cold War. What do you think of that? Reagan labeled the Soviet Union an " evil empire " and predicted that Communism would be left on the " ash heap of history ," while Thatcher inculpated the Soviets as "bent on world dominance.

It hurt the Soviet economy, but it also caused ill will among American allies in Europe who counted on that revenue. Reagan retreated on this issue. By early , Reagan's anti-communist position had developed into a stance known as the new Reagan Doctrine —which, in addition to containment, formulated an additional right to subvert existing communist governments.

Pope John Paul II provided a moral focus for anti-communism ; a visit to his native Poland in stimulated a religious and nationalist resurgence centered on the Solidarity movement that galvanized opposition and may have led to his attempted assassination two years later.

Reagan imposed economic sanctions on Poland in response. Soviet investment in the defense sector was not driven by military necessity, but in large part by the interests of massive party and state bureaucracies dependent on the sector for their own power and privileges. Soon after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, president Carter began massively building up the United States military. This buildup was accelerated by the Reagan administration, which increased the military spending from 5.

Tensions continued to intensify as Reagan revived the B-1 Lancer program, which had been canceled by the Carter administration, produced LGM Peacekeeper missiles, [] installed US cruise missiles in Europe, and announced the experimental Strategic Defense Initiative , dubbed "Star Wars" by the media, a defense program to shoot down missiles in mid-flight. After Reagan's military buildup, the Soviet Union did not respond by further building its military, [] because the enormous military expenses, along with inefficient planned manufacturing and collectivized agriculture , were already a heavy burden for the Soviet economy.

The airliner had violated Soviet airspace just past the west coast of Sakhalin Island near Moneron Island , and the Soviets treated the unidentified aircraft as an intruding U. The incident increased support for military deployment, overseen by Reagan, which stood in place until the later accords between Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev.

American domestic public concerns about intervening in foreign conflicts persisted from the end of the Vietnam War. Meanwhile, the Soviets incurred high costs for their own foreign interventions. Although Brezhnev was convinced in that the Soviet war in Afghanistan would be brief, Muslim guerrillas, aided by the U. A senior U. State Department official predicted such an outcome as early as , positing that the invasion resulted in part from a "domestic crisis within the Soviet system.

It may be that the thermodynamic law of entropy has We could be seeing a period of foreign movement at a time of internal decay". By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary in , [] the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the s.

An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary, and in June Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika , or restructuring. These measures were intended to redirect the country's resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more productive areas in the civilian sector. Despite initial skepticism in the West, the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Union's deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the West.

In response to the Kremlin's military and political concessions , Reagan agreed to renew talks on economic issues and the scaling-back of the arms race. Talks went well until the focus shifted to Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, which Gorbachev wanted eliminated. Reagan refused.

East—West tensions rapidly subsided through the mid-to-late s, culminating with the final summit in Moscow in , when Gorbachev and George H. In , Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan , [] and by Gorbachev consented to German reunification , [] [ citation not found ] as the only alternative was a Tiananmen Square scenario.

On 3 December , Gorbachev and George H. Bush declared the Cold War over at the Malta Summit. By , the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse, and, deprived of Soviet military support, the communist leaders of the Warsaw Pact states were losing power. In , the communist governments in Poland and Hungary became the first to negotiate the organization of competitive elections.

In Czechoslovakia and East Germany, mass protests unseated entrenched communist leaders. The communist regimes in Bulgaria and Romania also crumbled, in the latter case as the result of a violent uprising. Attitudes had changed enough that U. Secretary of State James Baker suggested that the American government would not be opposed to Soviet intervention in Romania, on behalf of the opposition, to prevent bloodshed. The revolutionary wave swept across Central and Eastern Europe and peacefully overthrew all of the Soviet-style communist states: East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria; [] [ citation not found ] Romania was the only Eastern-bloc country to topple its communist regime violently and execute its head of state.

In the USSR itself, glasnost weakened the bonds that held the Soviet Union together, [] and by February , with the dissolution of the USSR looming, the Communist Party was forced to surrender its year-old monopoly on state power. Gorbachev's permissive attitude toward Central and Eastern Europe did not initially extend to Soviet territory; even Bush, who strove to maintain friendly relations, condemned the January killings in Latvia and Lithuania , privately warning that economic ties would be frozen if the violence continued.

The Commonwealth of Independent States , created on 21 December , is viewed as a successor entity to the Soviet Union, but, according to Russia's leaders, its purpose was to "allow a civilized divorce" between the Soviet Republics and is comparable to a loose confederation. President George H.

Bush expressed his emotions: "The biggest thing that has happened in the world in my life, in our lives, is this: By the grace of God, America won the Cold War. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union , Russia drastically cut military spending , and restructuring the economy left millions unemployed. The Cold War continues to influence world affairs.

The post-Cold War world is considered to be unipolar , with the United States the sole remaining superpower. Cumulative U. Further nearly , Americans lost their lives in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. In addition to the loss of life by uniformed soldiers, millions died in the superpowers' proxy wars around the globe, most notably in Southeast Asia. However, the aftermath of the Cold War is not considered to be concluded. Many of the economic and social tensions that were exploited to fuel Cold War competition in parts of the Third World remain acute.

The breakdown of state control in a number of areas formerly ruled by communist governments produced new civil and ethnic conflicts, particularly in the former Yugoslavia. In Central and Eastern Europe, the end of the Cold War has ushered in an era of economic growth and an increase in the number of liberal democracies , while in other parts of the world, such as Afghanistan, independence was accompanied by state failure.

During the Cold War itself, with the United States and the Soviet Union invested heavily in propaganda designed to influence the hearts and minds of people around the world, especially using motion pictures. The Cold War endures as a popular topic reflected extensively in entertainment media, and continuing to the present with numerous post Cold War-themed feature films, novels, television, and other media. As soon as the term "Cold War" was popularized to refer to post-war tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, interpreting the course and origins of the conflict has been a source of heated controversy among historians, political scientists, and journalists.

Although explanations of the origins of the conflict in academic discussions are complex and diverse, several general schools of thought on the subject can be identified. Historians commonly speak of three differing approaches to the study of the Cold War: "orthodox" accounts, "revisionism", and "post-revisionism". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the state of political tension in the 20th century. For the general term, see Cold war general term. For the current state of political tension, see Second Cold War. For other uses, see Cold War disambiguation.

For other uses, see Cold warrior disambiguation. Cold War — East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall , Navy aircraft shadowing a Soviet freighter during the Cuban Missile Crisis , American astronaut Thomas P. Stafford and Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov shake hands in outer space , Mushroom cloud of the Ivy Mike nuclear test , ; one of more than a thousand such tests conducted by the US between and Russian , Ukrainian and Belarusian leaders signing the Belavezha Accords , officially dissolving the Soviet Union, Main article: Cold war general term.

Main article: Origins of the Cold War. Main articles: Potsdam Conference and Surrender of Japan. Main article: Eastern Bloc. The labeling used on Marshall Plan aid to Western Europe. The red columns show the relative amount of total aid received per nation. Construction in West Berlin under Marshall Plan aid. Main articles: Cominform and Tito—Stalin Split. Main article: Berlin Blockade. Main article: Cold War — Main articles: Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution of The Hungarian Revolution of Main article: Flexible response. Main article: Sino-Soviet split.

China and pro-Chinese communist states. Neutral communist nations North Korea and Yugoslavia. Non-communist states. Main article: Space Race.

Cold War Literature

Main article: Berlin Crisis of Further information: Berlin Wall and Eastern Bloc emigration and defection. Main article: Brezhnev Doctrine. Main article: Nixon visit to China. Further information: Reagan Doctrine and Thatcherism. Main articles: Solidarity Polish trade union and Martial law in Poland. Further information: Soviet reaction to the Polish crisis of — Further information: Mikhail Gorbachev , Perestroika , and Glasnost.

Main article: Revolutions of Main article: Dissolution of the Soviet Union. See also: Culture during the Cold War. Main article: Historiography of the Cold War. Main article: Outline of the Cold War. Cambridge University Press, , pp. BBC News. Retrieved 13 April The New York Times.

Cold War Literature: Writing the Global Conflict

Retrieved 23 August The Cold War. Boller Not So! Oxford UP. Stoler Debating Franklin D. Roosevelt's Foreign Policies, — Latvia: A Short History. Tucker Walter de Gruyter. The Baltic Republics. Infobase Publishing. Herring Jr. Plokhy, Yalta: The price of peace Therefore, the continuation of cooperation and peaceful relations with its wartime allies, the United States and Great Britain, was greatly to be desired.

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Enigma, Part I. Murphy, Sergei A. Cornell University Press. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Post-communism and the Media in Eastern Europe. History of International Broadcasting. The Truman administration's fear that Rhee would launch an invasion prompted it to limit South Korea's military capabilities, refusing to provide tanks, heavy artillery, and combat planes.

This did not stop the South Koreans from initiating most of the border clashes with North Korean forces at the thirty-eighth parallel beginning in the summer of and reaching a high level of intensity and violence a year later. Historians now acknowledge that the two Koreas already were waging a civil conflict when North Korea's attack opened the conventional phase of the war.

National Archives. Retrieved 21 June Princeton University Press. The Soviet leader believed that North Korea had not achieved either military superiority north of the parallel or political strength south of that line. His main concern was the threat South Korea posed to North Korea's survival, for example fearing an invasion northward following U. Harvard University Press. American Foreign Relations: Volume 2: Since Cengage Learning. The Korean war in history.

Manchester University Press ND. Korea's Grievous War. University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved 26 June Newly released documents reveal U. Cold War nuclear target list. Retrieved 27 December See also: U. National Security Archive. International Relations, 5th Edition. Retrieved 11 June E Logistical deployment of new Soviet troops , para p.

Holodkov to Interior Minister N.

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Dudorov 15 November " PDF. Retrieved 2 September The Hungarian Quarterly. XL : 86— Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 13 October Breslauer Gorbachev and Yeltsin as Leaders. Schake, eds.

Freely available

Herring, From Colony to Superpower: U. Foreign Relations since pp — In Charles Townshend ed. The Oxford History of Modern War. New York: Oxford University Press. The Encyclopedia of Middle East Wars. Lay, Jr. George Washington University. Retrieved 7 November Smith 20 March March National Security: A Reference Handbook. The Political Economy of Central America since Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Lanham: Lexington Books. Young Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Berlin Penguin Group US.

Princeton UP. Retrieved 7 January Great Leaders, Great Tyrants? Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Cuba and the Missile Crisis. Melbourne, Australia: Ocean Press. The Cold War — Oxford: Blackwell. In Diane B. Kunz Ed. New York: Columbia University Press. Painter, "Oil and geopolitics: The oil crises of the s and the cold war. Retrieved 1 June Brookings Institution. Retrieved 12 June France, NATO, and the limits of independence, — the politics of ambivalence. Palgrave Macmillan. Lexington Books. Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 10 June Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved 23 January In Thomas J.

University of Wisconsin Press.