Different types of people will find themselves suited to each of these languages for different reasons. Most professional computer programmers know multiple languages. This is an ingrained part of the tech industry. Each one of these program interfaces gives the entire team a little bit more knowledge of the other programming languages involved. One of the best pieces of advice that new programming students can take to heart is to treat new languages as the tools they are.
Students who learn new programming languages on a needs-oriented basis position themselves to gather the most useful information for their goals in an efficient, results-oriented way. This means that instead of comparing Java vs. By focusing on the results of your programming skills, you will conveniently sidestep the risk of spending time and energy learning skills you end up rarely using.
You will have a clear path towards determining which language is the best fit for your needs and be able to start down the path of becoming a professional programmer. Your email address will not be published. The most significant reasons for this revolve around the nature of each language as it pertains to the tech industry as a whole: Java is a hugely popular general-purpose programming language designed to run on nearly any device.
It the language of choice for client-server web applications, with 9 million developers using the platform for this purpose.
It offers a more versatile environment suitable for achieving a wide range of programming goals. There are two advantages to setting a default value at the point where the variable is declared:. In addition to class methods and variables that are associated with each instance of a class, a Java class can contain members that are associated with the class itself.
In this example, the member variable maxSalary will exist once in the entire program, as opposed to once per instance of the class. Each Java class you define may include one or more constructors. Java class constructors have no return value and are declared in the same manner as any other class method. This can be seen in the following example:. Because of Java's automatic memory management, destructors are no longer needed to perform this job. Instead, each Java class can include a finalize method that can be used to perform any object cleanup.
The finalize method is declared in the Object class, but because Object is the ultimate base class of all Java classes, finalize is available to every Java class. There is one danger, however, to consider when using finalize. It is possible for a Java program to terminate without this method being invoked on every object.
If a program terminates with objects that are still referenced, the garbage collection process will never be used to release those objects, and finalize will never be called. Inheritance in Java is indicated by the use of the extends keyword, as shown in the following example:. Additionally, Java includes a super keyword that an object can use to reference its parent, or superclass.
The use of super is frequently seen in the constructor of a subclass, as shown in the following:. In this example, the Person class includes a constructor that is passed a first name and a last name. The Employee class is derived from Person and includes a constructor that is passed salary, first name, and last name. The constructor for Employee first sets the internal salary member and then uses super to invoke the constructor for Person. The Java version of a pure, virtual class is an abstract class. Instances of Java abstract classes cannot be created with new.
An abstract class is identified by the use of the abstract keyword, as shown in the following:. A class is considered abstract if it has one or more methods that are abstract. In the case of the Species class, the method GiveBirth is specified as abstract because some species have live births and others lay eggs. Because the method is abstract, no method body is given. If you design a class that is entirely abstract, then that class is what Java refers to as an interface.
A Java interface is similar to a class in that it defines a new type that contains both methods and variables. However, because an interface is completely abstract, its methods are not implemented within the interface. Instead, classes that are derived from an interface implement the methods of the interface.
An interface is declared in the same manner as a class except that instead of class , the keyword interface is used. For example, the following code will declare an interface named Clock :. To derive a class from an interface, use the keyword implements similar to how extends is used when a class is derived from another class. To derive the classes Cuckoo and Watch from the Clock interface, you would do the following:. Java does not support multiple class inheritance. In other words, a class may have only one immediate superclass because only a single class name can follow extends in a Java class declaration.
Comparison of Java and C++
Fortunately, class inheritance and interface inheritance can be combined when deriving a new Java class. And, a subclass can implement more than one interface. For example, you can do the following:. The Java language does not include a preprocessor. Java's removal of the preprocessor means that you will need to unlearn a couple of old habits. For example, you will no longer be able to use typedef and define.
In Java, you would instead use classes and constants.
This section will briefly describe some additional differences. A comment that is enclosed within these delimiters can be extracted from the source code and used to create documentation for the class with the JavaDoc utility. These parameters represent a count of the number of parameters and an array of parameter values, respectively.
In a Java application, the command-line arguments are based in an array of String objects. The signature for main is as follows:. Each component of the array args is one of the command-line arguments. Consider two programs that are invoked in the following manner:. Because Java does not allow direct manipulation of pointers, it does not support C-style, null-terminated strings.
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For its string support, Java utilizes a String class. Then you start to learn some of the more powerful tools available.
Why Java Developers Should Learn C++
But you should be starting to write code that better represents the idioms of your current language. But at some point, you miss something from a previous language. At that point, developers start thinking how to improve their own toolset by programming a technique into the language.
Most of the major programming languages have some advance that is clearly copied from another language. The more overlap you have between programmers of those languages, the more chance that someone will program a technique back into the language that they find really useful.
The trade-off for having more control over resources like memory, is that you have to spend more time thinking about how you use that control. Apart, it gave me a lot more confidence in how to approach the language, and which bits were important. Look at the code above. The only way it could be more simple is if cin and cout had better names. Use the simpler tools available, because you can start fine tuning performance when it matters.
Learn them and use them. Get them to show you the effect under simple conditions in a modern compiler. At worst, someone in that scenario is going to learn something. And remember, on the internet, you can always find a contrary opinion expressed more coherently and authoritatively than you can do so yourself.
There is a lot of depth.
The more that you read, the more things you will know. As a product developer, I'm interested in making sure I'm solving meaningful problems for our clients, and providing an experience that doesn't make them fat.