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In chemical synthesis, the lycopene oleoresin has been saponified using a mixture of propylene glycol and aqueous alkali for getting lycopene crystals fit for human consumption. High Performance Liquid Chromatography has helped in identification of constituents of the total lycopene oleoresin after saponification with lycopene The dehydrated papaya peels has been also utilized for the extraction of lycopene which is standardized for the maximum recovery of the pigment by using response surface methodology with use of three independent variables and their levels based on Face Central Composite Design.

Lycopene content in papaya peels has reported to varied between This bacterium is gone for desaturation of phytoene via enzyme phytoene desaturase CrtI catalysis for leading to neurosporene Later lycopene is produced via involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four. Chromosomal insertions of akanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC and crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene as the major carotenoid.

Spectroscopic and biochemical evidence in vivo has shown the lycopene incorporation into the light-harvesting complex1 44 , Introduction up to 40 consecutive copies of heterologous carotenoid biosynthesis pathway genes into the E. Phytosterols or plant sterols are belong to family of cholesterol molecules with structural similarity and are found in the cell membranes of plants, playing important roles like cholesterol in humans. Campesterol, sitosterol and stigmasterol are reported most common phytosterols in the human diet.

It has acted in the intestine to lower cholesterol absorption and it needs to present in healthy human diets with minimum risk of coronary heart disease Plant immunity has reported to involve the pathogen-associated molecular pattern PAMP -triggered immunity PTI and effector-triggered immunity ETI which is found to develop the non-host resistance in all members of a plant species due to potentially pathogenic microbes.

Pathogens have derived of nutrients from host plants with development of relationship between apoplastic nutrient levels and bacterial growth.

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A species of Arabidopsis plant Arabidopsis thaliana is reported as sterol methyltransferase 2 mutants and found to involve in sterol biosynthesis with resultant to plant innate immunity against bacterial pathogens. Arabidopsis cytochrome P CYPA1 has capability to encode Csterol desaturase which can convert b-sitosterol to stigmasterol due to induced inoculation with nonhost pathogens An Arabidopsis Atcyp A1 with null mutant has developed both nonhost and basal resistance.

Phytosterols are steroid compounds in most of plants with structural and functional similarity to cholesterol of human. Phytosterols can lower the plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels in human or animals via direct inhibition of cholesterol absorption through displacement of cholesterol from mixed micelles. Stanols in phytosterols are more efficient in lowering cholesterol levels than sterols unsaturated.

Phytosterols have some substitutions at the C24 position on the sterol side chain Plasma phytosterol in mammalian tissues are low in concentration due to poor absorption from the intestine but faster excretion is reported from the liver. Adverse effects of phytosterols are reported in few group of individuals with phytosterolemia an inherited lipid disorder with reduction in plasma levels of nutrients carotenoids.

Phytosterols and their derivatives have promoted the health of man and animals via encouraging their consumption in the population 56 , Steroid compounds are widely marketed products of pharmaceutical industry. The complexity of steroid molecules can be minimized by use of biocatalysts for high regio- and stereo-selectivity of the reactions The mild conditions are required for bioconversions which led to the development of high yield in biological production processes with environmentally friendly than their chemical synthesis as a major concern of industrialists.

Prebiotic foods are reported as non-digestible foods in human digestive system onions, garlic, bananas, Jerusalem artichoke, chicory root, beans, and skin of apples, or others prebiotic fiber and it is mostly reported in small intestine and has capability to stimulate the favourable growth or enhanced the activities of indigenous probiotic bacteria. And it reaches to large colon and it is feed by colonies of beneficial bacteria probiotic bacteria and helped in increasing desirable bacteria number in our digestive systems gut with association to better health and reduced disease risk Prebiotic therapies has been reported to cure gut related diseases constipation relief, suppression of diarrhoea, reduction of the risks of osteoporosis, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, and possibly type 2 diabetes and prebiotics are associated with sufficiently enriched with fibers needed for proper gut work Probiotics are reported as live and beneficial bacterial culture and their metabolites is naturally created by fermentation in foods and yogurt, sauerkraut, miso soup, kimchi, and others fermented foods are good examples.

Recent periods, it is also available in pill form and also added ingredient in products yogurt and health drinks. Kefir is found a milk drink with fermented using kefir grains as potent source of probiotics. It contains lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in high numbers with diversity nature 50 different or more types of bacteria It has more consistency in drinking food with yoghurt and it is traveling into the digestive tract via colonizing the colon. Currently, consumption of functional foods or nutraceutical food in everyday diet as its parts has demonstrated to potential health benefits.

Probiotics are most important and frequently used as functional food compound as it is healthy dairy products and been an excellent source of nutritious foods Such probiotic dairy foods has beneficially affect on the host by improving survival and implantation of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal flora or by selectively stimulating the growth or activating the catabolism. It contains one or a limited number of health-promoting bacteria in the intestinal tract, or by improving the gastrointestinal tract's microbial balance.

Current scenario of probiotics and their prospective has shown many potential applications for functional foods for better health and nutrition of the society Probiotic strains of lactobacilli have been used in clinical practices due to their many health benefits. Probiotic strains of lactobacilli Lactobacillus species infections are rarely bacteremia or sepsis reported in two patients Probiotic lactobacilli has been subsequently developed and molecular DNA fingerprinting analysis has been performed for Lactobacillus strain isolated from blood samples of probiotic strain ingested patient.

Invasive disease can be associated with probiotic lactobacilli which should not discourage the appropriate use of Lactobacillus or other probiotic agents and it can cause invasive disease in certain populations These strains has used as commercial products and evaluated for safety, identity, gastrointestinal survival, and stability throughout shelf life These have shown antimicrobial activity against C.

Lifestyle of modern age people have faced many challenges, especially many health issues such obesity, osteoporosis, cancer diabetes, and several chronic gut problems. Problem in life could be developed due to consumption of manifold junk foods which has developed health problem and it is due to nutritional deficiencies in their food. Due to developing of more awareness about food in people, has shifted their synthetic food ingredients to organic foods or ingredients from natural sources. And nutraceuticals food has played important role in controlling such diseases with provider of the health benefits to people.

Dietary supplements as nutraceuticals food have helped in nutritional, immunologic and physiological functions with prevention or treatment of diseases of gastrointestinal GI tract. Many herbals products with natural products has started to synthesize by many Indian or any other industries in world and more people are getting health benefits. Prebiotics, probiotics help in development of healthy microenvironment in human with treatment of chronic diseases , lycopene with potent antioxidant properties and plant sterol for lowering the blood cholesterol has been discussed with their health benefits.

Author is main source for writing this manuscript. He has done only all the respective literature paper to writing this manuscript. There is no contribution of any fund or any honorarium money for this paper. But I am thankful to our university to encourage for paper writing.

Reviewer guidelines Register Reviewer Benefits Resources. Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Science. Current Issue. Volume No: 1 Issue No: 4. Rajesh K. Abstract Improved economic and developed people with their lifestyle have created many challenges of health issues obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems , due to selection of different food habits such as consumption of manifold junk foods.

Checked for plagiarism: Yes Review by: Single-blind. Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Science - 1 4 DOI Introduction Stephen De Felice has coined the term nutraceutical for the food product or its functional components exhibiting nutrition and pharmaceutical properties both. Nutraceutical Nature of Food Products or Food Ingredients Functional foods are the products, possessing physiological benefits to people and its good source can be traditional foods. Profile and bioavailability of provitamin a on biofortified cassava varieties.

Isolation of lactic acid bacteria producing folate and riboflavin from goat milk a Product development based on kefir dehydrated by spray dryer. Safety and technological characterization of autochthonous thermophilic lactic aci Bioprotetores microorganisms in salami with low salt content and its effect on the The proposed research project aims at evaluating the use of vitamins producing lactic acid bacteria as a strategy for the design of new nutraceuticals or innovative biofortified foods destined for populations that are at high risk to develop vitamin deficiencies.

These deficiencies are common throughout the world due to inadequate food intakes caused by many reasons, mainly malnutrition.

Many countries have mandatory fortification programs in place, where foods of mass consumption are supplemented with chemical forms of specific vitamins. However, these types of vitamins can cause adverse side effects, which do not occur with the natural forms. This is the case for folic acid, which can cause the masking of vitamin B 12 deficiencies and alter the activity of essential liver enzymes, whereas natural folates, found in foods or produced by certain microorganisms do not cause these problems.

Lack of control of these laws resulted in failure in the prevention of vitamin deficiencies. Because of their numerous beneficial properties, lactic acid bacteria LAB have been recommended as a complement to conventional medical treatments. Furthermore, certain LAB strains can produce B group vitamins, making them ideal candidates for the development of new products destined for populations that do not have adequate vitamin intakes.

Influence of passion fruit by-product and fructooligosaccharides on the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG in folate bio-enriched fermented soy products and their effect on probiotic survival and folate bio-accessibility under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology , v. Also, kefir could be made from milk substitutes such as soy milk, rice milk and coconut milk Nielsen et al.

The main contents are about 1. During the process of fermentation of kefir, several changes in composition of nutrients and other ingredients occur. Lactic acid produced by the LAB and propionic acid by propionibacteria are final metabolites usually find in kefir. Other substances that can also be found in kefir and contribute to the flavour are pyruvic acid, acetic acid, diacetyl and acetoin, citric acid, acetaldehyde and various amino acids as a result of the metabolism of milk proteins.

As a result of the fermentation process conducted using LAB and yeasts, only a little concentration of lactose remains in the final product. This is an important advantage for the lactose-intolerant individuals to be able to tolerate kefir de Oliveira et al. Kumis, originated from India, the Middle East, Mongolia and Turkey, is made from mare milk, involving acid and alcoholic fermentation using microorganisms Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

The metabolites are lactic acid, ethanol and carbon dioxide in the ratio of Tamime et al. Yogurt, one of the most popular fermented milk products worldwide, originated from the Balkans and Middle East. Yogurt is the result of the fermentation of cow, goat, sheep or buffalo milk using Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Yogurt has a viscosity and a distinctive acidic, sharp flavour Tamime and Robson ; Oliveira The LAB used in yogurt production ferment in a symbiotic growth pattern where Streptococcus thermophilus grows faster than Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

In the presence of formic acid, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Addition- ally, some salt could be added to improve the shelf life Kabak and Dobson Vili originated from Nordic countries, and it is made from the inoculation of milk with Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cheese production dates back years ago and includes more than varieties Beresford et al.

Farms and shepherds developed the cheese from spontaneous fermentation of LAB into cow, goat, sheep and buffalo milk on a small scale, incubating the milk from the previous day under specific conditions. The primary function of LAB in cheese technology is to produce acid during fermentation process; however the strains used will differentiate the cheese ripen- ing and flavour compounds obtained by proteolysis of milk amino acids Fox and Wallace ; Beresford et al.

LAB used as starter bacteria to cheese curd are divided into thermophilic bacteria or mesophilic bacteria. In cheese production, the starter culture are associated as well with other microorganisms, including non-LAB, moulds and yeasts Metha et al. The traditional way of preservation, mainly for vegetables, was to keep them in the presence of solution with high salt concentration or brine. These processes are used until today for the manufacture of pickles, but only in the last century, it was discovered that this conservation process is related to the action of LAB, which lowers pH and controls with high osmotic pressure caused by the salt and the action of spoilage microorganisms.

Cucumber, sauerkraut, kimchi, olives, peppers, toma- toes and carrots are the most traditional fermented vegetable foods Metha et al. Boza, originated from the Balkans region of Europe and the Middle East, is a traditional low alcoholic beverage and highly viscous made from rice and wheat flours Kabak and Dobson The LAB responsible for the fermentation of traditional boza are a mixture of different Lactobacillus spp. Von Mollendorff et al. Boza presents the average composition about 1. LAB and yeast are the principal microbiota of boza and are responsible for the production of a number of vitamins and increase the nutritional value of the product Von Mollendorff et al.

Traditional medicine recommends the application of boza in several cases as a parallel treatment for the control of diarrhoea in kids and adults and to reduce symptoms of inflammation of upper respiratory tract and even tuberculosis LeBlanc and Todorov ; Todorov et al.

Perspective ARTICLE

Kimchi, originated from Korea, is made from cabbage and various other vege- tables, salted overnight, washed and drained. The predominant bacteria are Leuconostoc, Weissella and Lacto- bacillus Metha et al. Pickles originated in Persia. In the preservation process of this food, cucumbers are brined, where the salt concentration controls the spoilage microorganisms until the LAB became the dominant microbiota Metha et al.

Tarhana, originated from the Middle East, is prepared by mixing cracked wheat of flour, yogurt, yeast and a variety of cooked vegetables and spices and has an acidic and sour taste with a strong yeast flavour Kabak and Dobson These food products are fermented using Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus diacetylactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Leuconostoc cremoris, Lacto- bacillus delbrueckii subsp.

Olives are an essential part of the Mediterranean area food habits. The fermentation occurred using natural microbiota that include Lacto- bacillus mesenteroides, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lacto- bacillus pentosus Metha et al. The traditional meat product has its origin in the Babylonian age.

The preser- vation of meat is based on dry curing, salting and fermentation processes Metha et al. The traditional meat product is used to be dry cured by salt, nitrate, nitrite and sugars and then fermented using LAB. The LAB are essential agents to improve the hygienic and sensory quality of the final sausage Fadda et al.

The fermentation using LAB during the storage of product promotes the decrease of pH and reduction of nitrates and nitrites to nitric oxide, development of red colour, dehydration, lipolysis, fat autoxidation and proteolysis Fadda et al. The curing process must contain a fermentation stage using different Lactobacillus spp. Lukanka is Balkan Peninsula Europe traditional dry-fermented sausage made from pork meat and predominantly fermented using L. However, other bacteria as Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus sharpeae are also found in the autochthonous micro- biota of this product Talon et al.

Sucuk is originated from Turkey. The mixture is then stuffed into the small intestines of cattle and allowed to ferment and dry for several weeks at ambient temperature. The fermentation occurs spontaneously using the innate microbiota. The main LAB found in the traditional products are Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus sake Kabak and Dobson The spoilage of fish is a very rapid process: before refrigeration process, fermentation using LAB increases the palatability and nutritional value, to extend the shelf life.

Preservation of fish can be traced back to the ancient Greek civili- zation Metha et al. The natural microbiota present in the fish is salt sensitive, and without salt, the putrefactive microbiota grows fast. Under anaerobic conditions, Lactobacillus spp. The final product may be preserved as the entire fish, such as anchovies, or in the form of pastes like bagoong or in the form of sauces like nuoc-mam Taira et al. Bagoong originated from the Philippines and Indonesia. It is a condiment made of partially or completely fermented fish or shrimp and salt Oetterer Nuoc-mam, originated from Southeast Asia, is made from various low-quality fish that are mixed with salt and packed in wooden pots to create an anaerobic condition.

However, all these application have been related to the empirical knowledge and been transferred from generation to the next generation without any scientific knowledge. Only after the discovery of antibiotics by Fleming and a bit later detection of nisin, various antimicrobial peptides have been subject of intensive research and scientific inter- ests.

Almost years later, we can say that antimicrobial peptides can be detected in all life forms, including not only microorganisms but also animals, insects, fishes, birds and plants. In last 50 years, bacteriocins have been intensively studied by different research groups working in the area of bio- chemistry, food science and recently medical-related research groups.

According to Cotter et al. However, special attention has been paid to the bacteriocins produced by LAB, as potential candidates in the preservation of fermented food products Heng et al. But in the last decade, the research focus in bacteriocins involved in their potential application in the treatment of human and animal diseases and fight against antibiotic resistance problems was increased.

Microorganisms, understanding LAB as well, can produce various antimicrobial compounds, including organic acids lactic, acetic, formic, propionic acids that normally intensify their action by reducing the pH of the media. Other substances, like fatty acids, acetoin, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl, antifungal compounds pro- pionate, phenyl-lactate, hydroxyphenyl-lactate, cyclic dipeptides and 3-hydroxy fatty acids , bacteriocins nisin, reuterin, reutericyclin, pediocin, lacticin, enterocin and others and bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances BLIS Reis et al.

Thus, bacteriocins are just one specific share of a big range of bio-inhibitor compounds produced by LAB. Another antimicrobial entourage of LAB may include different biopolymers, sugars, sweet- eners, nutraceuticals, aromatic compounds and various enzymes, in this way indi- cating that LAB have higher flexibility and wider application than just as starter cultures. Research for the new antimicrobial compounds is crucial in order to provide an alternative to the chemical additives, in this way offering to the market new and more natural food products.

The specific spectrum of activity of bacterio- cins against certain emerging foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, their resistance to thermal proceeding and low pH, combined with their sensitivity to human proteolytic enzymes, are important positive characteristics in the appli- cation of these compounds in food preservation Masuda et al. In the last decade, based on the intensive research in the area of bacteriocins, we have sufficient examples for bacteriocins that may have appli- cation in controlling Gram-negative bacteria, some yeast, Mycobacterium spp.

However, amino acid sequences of only few of these unusual bacteriocins are provided Todorov et al. Many classifications of bacteriocins have already been proposed Cotter et al. Class I bacteriocins are subdivided in three subgroups: type A corresponds to linear peptides, type B to globular peptides and type C to multicomponent bacterio- cins. Mersacidin and cinnamycin, for instance, belong to the class I type B globular peptides. Class I type C examples are lacticin and cytolysin, both being formed by more than one component, all necessary for biological activity Favaro et al.

Class II bacteriocins are also subdivided in three subgroups: type IIa corresponds to pediocin-like bacteriocins pediocin Pa-1, carnobacteriocin B2, listerocin A and ubericin A , type IIb are multicomponent bacteriocins lactococcin G, thermophilin 13, lactacin F and lactocin and type IIc are miscellaneous bacteriocins, a diverse group that includes sakacins Q, T and X and aureocin A53 Favaro et al. Class IV bacteriocins include circularly inhibitory peptides and the prototype is enterocin AS Abriouel et al. However, in last few decades, consumers are requesting not only safe but also healthier food.

In addition, the combined application of bacteriocins, essential oils and other natural antibacterial metabolites could result in food products which are more naturally preserved and have better sensorial and nutritional characteristics Reis et al.

Nutraceutical production with food-grade microorganisms.

According to www. The biggest parts of these studies are related to bacteriocins from LAB, but even very extensively studied, their usage as food preservatives is still very limited, related to several techno- logical or legislation barriers. A high number of bacteriocins may have potential applications in food bio-preservation, but they are not currently approved as antimicrobial food additives Favaro et al. One of the most studied bacteriocins by numerous research groups are nisin and pediocin PA-1, and both of them have commercial applications in the food industry and in veterinary and human medicine Cotter et al.

The commercial application of nisin dates back to , when it was marketed in England. Nowa- days, nisin has been approved in more than 50 countries worldwide. Applications of nisin as a natural food preservative have been explored in dairy products and especially in processed cheese.

Table 4 from Beneficial Microorganisms in Food and Nutraceuticals - Semantic Scholar

However, national legislations may differ concerning the levels of nisin in various food products. In the United Kingdom, the application of nisin can be added to cheese without limit, while in Spain, Brazil, Argentina, Italy and Mexico, The application of nisin is not facing serious safety issues, since nisin is not toxic with cytotoxicity similar to that of NaCl Jozala et al. Nisin serves as a model in explaining the mode of action for most of bacterio- cins.

According to Wiedemann et al. After interaction with lipid II, nisin wedges itself into the cell membrane to form short-lived pores, which disturb the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane and cause the efflux of intracellular compo- nents Wiedemann et al. However, at high concentrations of nisin, pore formation may occur even when lipid II is not presented on cell surface or been blocked by other molecules. The positively charged C-terminus of nisin is important for initial adhesion to the binding to negatively charged phospholipids. Similar mode of action was described for mersacidin and the antibiotic vancomycin, which can also bind to lipid II, but to a different part of the molecule Cotter et al.

The problem is that very frequently fermentation time in the preparation of certain fermented food products is very short, and after that, products are kept at refrigeration condition. Most probably, LAB will survive at the refrigeration and freezing conditions, but definitely we cannot count on the production of bacteriocin s in order to have bio-preservation characteristics Favaro et al. Another potential problem is the fact that very frequent bacteriocin s production can be dependent on the needs of the specific nutrients.

There are several research papers pointing on the effect of the type of medium and medium components themselves on the production of bacteriocin s Parente and Ricciardi ; Parente et al. Very frequently bacteriocin production can be detected in liquid growth medium and not in solid medium or opposite. Bacteriocin s can be produced and expressed in laboratory commercial mediums, but not in the milk or meat substrates Todorov ; Furtado et al. Bacteriocin production can be regulated by the level of pH, temperature and presence of different proteins and be a part of quorum senses Parente and Ricciardi ; Parente et al.

If the fermentation process is very short, substrate environments, temperature or pH and various other factors will be not sufficient or good for the production and expression of bacteriocins, and then another option will be to apply the semi-purified or in some cases pure bacterio- cin s.

In this scenario, we need to be aware of the biochemical characteristics of the bacteriocin and to be sure that they will be applicable for our specific way of application. However, the presence of proteolytic enzymes and high lipids composition can be a factor reducing the effect of bacteriocin s in the bio-preservation processes Cotter et al.

The application of bacteriocinogenic strains or bacteriocins themselves can be a way to control spoilage and even pathogenic bacteria and even some other microorganism groups , but some innovative ideas need to be applied in order to have better effect. Previously, Van Reenen et al. Plantaricin shares a high similarity to pediocin PA-1 and coagulin operons; in fact plaC and plaD genes are identical to pedC and pedD of the pediocin PA-1 operon, as well as coaC and coaD of the coagulin operon Van Reenen et al.

In study of Van Reenen et al. However, plantaricin production was recorded in the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells by overlay approach only in 2-, 3- and 4-day-old colonies using soft agar containing Listeria monocytogenes cells as target microorganisms. Based on this academic exercise, Van Reenen et al.

However, similar work has been previously reported by Schoeman et al. The problem in this study was that no inhibitory activity was detected in the supernatant of the recombinant yeast without concentration Van Reenen et al. Schoeman et al. Even if the previous work were just academic exercises and not practically applied, based on the low levels of expression of the produced bacteriocins, these studies present an opportunity for the application of biological control of food spoilage microorganisms during food fermentation processes, including wine pro- duction.

In a different study, the same bacteriocinogenic strain of Lactobacillus plantarum Van Reenen et al. In parallel, Lactobacillus curvatus DF38, producer of curvacin DF38, and a bacteriocin- negative mutant of Lactobacillus plantarum m were evaluated as starter cultures in the production of salami Todorov et al. According to the results, the best growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus curvatus DF38 and the highest level of bacteriocin production were recorded in blesbok salami. Listeria innocua was successfully inhibited in the experimentally contam- inated salami. However, no inhibition of Listeria innocua was recorded in horse salami, suggesting that the meat contained compounds that inhibited bacteriocin activity Todorov et al.

This observation is in agreement with a finding pointed already in the same study that the bacteriocin activity can be interfered by several factors from temperature, pH to the type and composition of the food matrix. Negative point in this study is that they did not investigate the influence of other antimicrobial substances that may be involved in the inhibition of Listeria innocua. For example, it was reported that Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC pro- duces 2-pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, which inhibits the growth of a number of bacteria Huttunen et al.

We need to acknowledge that most probably the final inhibitory effect on Listeria innocua resulted from the complex action of all antimicrobial meta- bolites potentially produced by LAB. However, differences in the observed inhi- bitory effect of salami prepared with Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriocin producer and Lactobacillus plantarum m bacteriocin gene-cured mutant are good arguments to address part of the reduction of Listeria innocua as a result of the produced and expressed bacteriocin plantaricin An important point in the application of LAB or inhibitor substances produced by LAB is that it is not going to interfere with the organoleptic characteristics of the final products.

In other words, the consumers need to be satisfied with the quality of the final products. In an experiment where Lactobacillus plantarum was used in the preparation of salami from beef, horse, mutton, blesbok and springbok, the colour of salami did not differ statistically from the controls; the end pH of salami ranged from 4.

No significant differences were recorded among the three starter cultures regarding colour and venison-like aroma Todorov et al. Maybe one of the most studied food products for a bio-preservation was dairy products. Several examples for dairy bio-preservation, including discussion of the potential problems, were presented by Favaro et al. Based on our previous experiment working with the application of LAB and bacteriocin s in the preservation of cheeses Pingitore et al.

Furtado et al. The problem faced in this study was that this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain. When nisin As previously mentioned, we can conclude that the inhi- bition of Listeria monocytogenes is a more complex process. However, in another study by Furtado et al. In relation to the latter, creating a cheese product containing a bio-preservative culture with probiotic properties can be considered as an innova- tive idea with potential beneficial and health characteristics.

However, we need to acknowledge that not all bacteriocinogenic strains can be considered as ideal bio-preservatives for every type of products. It is well recorded that nisin works well in several dairy products, but in relation to the high lipid content, nisin is not well adapted for application in meat products Favaro et al. An important point is the level of produced bacteriocin and if the technological condition of the production of the food products will support the production and expression of these bacteriocins in the sufficient level to perform their mode of action against pathogenic bacteria.

Another potential problem with hard phase fermented products is that bacteriocin can be produced in one part of the product, while the pathogenic bacteria can be at the other part. Very frequently postproduction contaminations are located on the surface of the products. In the study conducted by Pingitore et al. In the second part of the study, Pingitore et al. In comparison, cheese prepared with bioprotective culture Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch was less effective in controlling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, as the bacteriostatic effect occurred only after 6 days but with the similar inhibitory profile as non-bacteriocinogenic strain of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC Based on the in vitro tests reported by Pingitore et al.

In the same study, in cheeses containing nisin This research underlines the potential application of Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas cheeses Pingitore et al. One of the intensively studied product regarding options for the control of Listeria monocytogenes contaminations is smoked salmon.

Every year, large num- ber of products from salmon industry was discarded because of microbial contami- nations. Different options were reported in the area of bio-preservation and food safety: protamies Johansen et al. The application of Carnobacterium divergens V41 and its bacteriocin was used to control Listeria innocua during salmon-trout cold smoking process.

Culture of Carnobacterium divergens V41 and bacteriocin-containing cell-free supernatant were applied on raw fish fillets Vaz-Velho et al. Fillets were subject on treatment simulating industrial procedure for the preparation of smoked salmon including cold smoking and stored for 3 weeks in vacuum packs. Both treatments, with bacterial culture or bacteriocin-containing cell-free supernatant, showed significant inhibition of Listeria innocua in contami- nated samples compared with the controls Vaz-Velho et al. An important point of this work is that based on the sensorial test performed on fillets treated with culture of Carnobacterium divergens or bacteriocin-containing cell-free super- natant, trained team of panelists cannot detect any specific differences in the product.

The bioprotective properties of LAB strains isolated from fermented meat products from Portugal Todorov et al. In addition, bacteriocinogenic strains have been tested related to their safety properties Todorov et al. Jacome et al. Meat products were contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes using a sterile cotton swab. The micro- biological control was performed during the storage period, together with a quanti- tative descriptive sensory test, performed by a sensory trained panel at 30, 90 and days.

Special attention has been given to meat colour, greasiness, characteristic odour, off odour, hardness, succulence, characteristic taste, acid taste and bitter taste. The application of used bio-preservation method had no significant effect on any of the analysed sensorial attributes.

In addition, it has been shown that some of the expressed bacteriocins can inhibit several foodborne and human pathogens and reduce the growth and viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and some viruses LeBlanc and Todorov ; Todorov et al. Even more, cultures of some LAB isolated from boza can be responsible for inhibiting the growth of some fungus based on cell to cell interaction. In a different experiment, Todorov et al.

Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA was isolated from soybeans, and its bacteriocin has been described as an active substance against several foodborne and human pathogens, including pathogens isolated from human middle ear and some viruses Todorov et al. At the same time, this strain was evaluated for its probiotic potential Botes et al. Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA was applied as a potential bioprotective culture for control of contaminants during the production of boza Todorov et al.

The production process was simulated according to the recipe for the production of boza with difference that Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA was added to the product in combination with Lactobacillus sakei as a sensitive strain, representing possible contamination. Dynamics of the bacterial population was monitored by classical microbiological approach and by biomolecular methods, including DGGE and species-specific PCR taking into consideration to not target DNA from dead cells. Results supported the previously raised hypothesis for possible control of spoilage bacteria by applying the bacteriocinogenic culture Todorov et al.

Botes et al. In addition, sensorial analysis of boza prepared with Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA as starter culture showed no differences from the boza prepared using the traditional way Todorov et al. Antimicrobial properties of kefir have been intensively studied. This activity can be addressed to the presence of the LAB and yeast in the kefir Powell et al. It has been shown that kefir possesses antimicrobial activity against various bacteria, including some pathogens as Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Salmonella and Listeria, and even can reduce growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rodri- gues et al.

Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF, a strain isolated from kefir grains, has been characterized as a bacteriocin producer Powell et al.

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This strain produces a 3. The experimental design proposed by Powell et al. Kefir produced with grains containing Lactobacillus plantarum ST8KF prevented the growth of Enterococcus mundtii in situ. However, no evidences of inhibition of Enterococcus mundtii were recorded when kefir was produced from grains containing a bacteriocin-negative variant ST8KF of the previously described strain Powell et al.

It is important to underline that authors used appropriate controls in order to estimate the effect of bacteriocin, but we need to acknowledge the possible effect in the inhibition of Enterococcus mundtii as an effect of complex various inhibitors produced during fermentation of kefir. This application of LAB is well known from the time of empirical application and knowledge, but even nowadays, it is still uncommonly applied. The control of filamentous moulds and yeast, common spoilage organisms of food products, is important since they may also produce health-damaging mycotoxins Legan In food industry, the addition of propionic acid and its salts, modified atmosphere packaging, irradiation and pasteurization are widely applied in order to minimize fungal spoilage of fermented food products Legan LAB are one of the extensively studied potential bio-preservatives, since a big part of them has a well-accepted GRAS status.

Lactobacillus plantarum MiLAB has been described as a potential strain for the control of Aspergillus nidulans. Cyclic dipeptides have been previously explored as potential antibacterial and antifungal inhibitors Gratz et al. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus sakei Magnusson et al.

In literature, only a limited number of reports related to the LAB have been presented as presenting activity against yeast and moulds: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. One of the biggest concerns of the presence of food spoilage mould is the occurrence of their mycotoxins. Mycotoxins constitute a serious health hazard, and they are related with a high lost of food products. Due to this, it is important to develop biological control strategy that should help to improve the safety of products by controlling mycotoxin producers or mycotoxin contaminations.

We have sufficient scientific data to believe that many LAB can inhibit mould growth and that some of them have the potential to interact with mycotoxins and contribute to their deactivation. In study reported by Roy et al. However, only six isolates were identified for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, and only one of them Lactococcus lactis subsp.

Some other Lactococcus spp.

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Strains from the genus Lactobacillus were frequently described as possessing antifungal activity. The antifungal strains have been isolated from different environ- ments such as sourdough Corsetti et al. A cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus plantarum 21B isolated from sourdough and grown in wheat flour hydrolysate was shown to possess an efficient antifungal activity against Penicillium spp.

Lavermicocca et al. Niku- Paavola et al. In this case, antifungal activity was described to the occurrence of effect of benzoic acid, an imidazolidinedione deri- vative and a piperazinedione derivative. Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. However, in liquid medium, the production of antifungal meta- bolites by Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. It is interesting to underline that these characteristics are in accordance with those of subclass II bacteriocins Klaenhammer Other species of Lactobacillus, including Lactobacillus casei Gourama ; Suzuki et al.

Moreover, some papers have reported the ability of the genus Pediococcus to control growth of mycotoxinogenic mould Effat et al. In study of Mandal et al. Bacteriocins have been of interest to the medical industry, based on simple fact that they are produced by nonpathogenic bacteria, most of them with GRAS status, that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract GIT and several fermented food products.

In the last decades, bacteriocins have also been suggested to be candidates in the cancer treatment Farkas-Himsley and Yu ; Baumal et al. Some promising studies have been suggesting them as diagnostic agents for some cancers Farkas-Himsley et al. Most probably, this is because of several questions about their mechanism of action and, by definition, the presumption that antibacterial agents including bacteriocins have no obvious connection to killing or inhibiting mammalian tumor cells.

In the last decades, some bacteriocins were tested as potential AIDS drugs, but the studies did not progress beyond in vitro tests on cell lines Farkas-Himsley et al. However, antiviral activity of bacteriocins has been studied by several research groups and shows promising results as a potential treatment in some cases as a single or accompanying therapy Todorov et al.

Wachsman et al. It was interesting to observe that virus adsorption and penetration are not affected by the presence of enterocin CRL Authors suggested that inhibition of HSV spreading by enterocin CRL35 is due to the prevention of mainly late glycoprotein synthesis Wachsman et al. One of the best known lantibiotic is a nisin; however, in the last decade, special attentions have been granted to numerous two-peptide lantibiotics, i. Based on the study of the genetic determinants and protein structure, lacticin , staphylococcin C55, plantaricin W, Smb, BHT-A and haloduracin have been shown to be closely related.

These antimicrobial peptides are extremely potent tools in nanomolar concentrations with activity against a number of micro- organisms, including activity against multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and vancomycin- resistant enterococcus VRE.

And even more important, to date, the development of significant levels of resistance has not been apparent. Based on their study on the application of lacticin and previously mentioned related two-peptide lanti- biotics, Lawton et al. In addition, nisin also showed a promising application in the control of clinically significant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA , vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus VRE , Clostridium difficile and Helicobacter pylori Lawton et al. Also, veterinary applications of nisin based on its activity against bovine mastitis-related pathogens have been proposed Broadbent et al.

Nisin has been applied as an effective contraceptive in rat, rabbit and monkey models, but it also has the advantage of being an antimicrobial and may also help in the prevention of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases Lawton et al. In addition to nisin, the application of several other bacteriocins has been described as an effective treatment against clinical bacterial pathogens.

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Mersacidin produced by Bacillus subtilis has attracted significant interest due to its wide spectrum of activity, including activity against MRSA Sahl et al. Gallidermin, produced by Staphylococcus gallinarum, differs from epidermin by a single amino acid and was observed to be more effective against Gram-positive pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acne Kellner et al.

Nascimento et al. CNS adhering to catheters. Mutacin , an epidermin family peptide, is a licensed and patented antimicrobial peptide produced by Streptococcus mutans. Mutacin was a very potent agent with activity against clinically isolated Gram-positive bacteria and even some clinically significant Gram-negative strains. Salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B, produced by Streptococcus salivarius K12, were applied in the control of oral bacteria responsible for bad breath Wescombe et al.

In addition, two salvaricin A-producing strains Streptococcus salivarius 20P3 and 5 were incorporated into a milk product for children, and it has been indicated that these probiotics strains were capable of colonization of and persistence in the oral cavity and to be involved in the control of Streptococcus pyogenes Dierksen et al. Streptococcus salivarius has also been shown to be producing antimicrobial peptide active against Propionibacterium acne, strain related to acne of the skin Filip et al.

Lacticin , produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lacticin showed effective role in the treatment of mastitis in cattle related to Streptococcus dysgalactiae Ryan et al. Based on efficacy of lacticin in treatment of cattle Streptococcus dysgalactiae, most probably, this lantibiotic will be effective in humans as well.

Streptococcus dysgalactiae has been related to acute pharyngitis in children, bacteraemia in a patient with pyomyositis and reactive arthritis, vertebral osteomyelitis, perinatal morbidity, neonatal mortal- ity and postpartum endometritis in women Torres et al. Lacticin has been shown to have the ability to inhibit Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae and may be a prospective agent for the control of these microorganisms Twomey et al.

A teat seal preparation containing macedocin ST91KM effectively released the peptide and inhibited the growth of Streptococcus aga- lactiae in the model system. Pieterse et al. Bacteriocins produced by different strains were proposed as potential agents for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.